C1c: Clean Air

The increase in respiratory illnesses such as asthma in young people maybe caused by an increase in air pollution. This item develops ideas about air pollution and how it can be prevented. The use of catalytic converters to reduce atmospheric pollution is also considered. The evolution of the atmosphere including the time scales involved and the ethical issues around human influences on the atmosphere are also introduced. 

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What four things does the air contain?
Oxygen, Nitrogen, Water Vapour and Carbon Dioxide.
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What three processes maintains the right balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
Photosynthesis, Combustion and Respiration.
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In the present day what are the levels of Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen doing?
Staying approximately constant.
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Name three common pollutants found in the air.
Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen,
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How is carbon monoxide formed, and what is it?
a poisonous gas, formed by the incomplete combustion of petrol or diesel in car engines.
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What does oxides of nitrogen cause, and how is it formed?
Causes photochemical smog (causes breathing difficulties) and acid rain, formed in the internal combustion engine
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What does sulfur dioxide cause, and how is it formed?
causes acid rain that will kill plants and aquatic life, erode stonework and corrode metals, and is formed when sulfur impurities in fossil fuels burn
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What does a catalytic converter do?
Remove carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases of a car
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What is the percentage of oxygen in the air?
21%
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What is the percentage of nitrogen in the air?
78%
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What is the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air?
0.035%
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Talk about the process of Carbon cycle.
Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis. Living organisms, including all plants and animals, release energy from their food using respiration. Respiration and combustion both release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
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How is it thought that the atmosphere was probably created??
from the gases escaping from the Earth’s interior. It is thought that this early atmosphere consisted of mostly carbon dioxide and water vapour, with a smaller proportion of ammonia, NH3.
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How is it thought the atmosphere has evolved from when it was created, to get to the air levels of today? Explain.
Photosynthesis's the process that plants use to produce food. For photosynthesis, plants absorb CO˅2 from the atmosphere&release oxygen as a by-product. Photosynthesis increased the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere until it reached todays level
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Due to an increase in population, there has also been an increase in three other things, which affects the levels of Carbon dioxide. What are they?
Respiration, Deforestation and Energy.
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How does an increase in respiration affect the levels of Carbon Dioxide?
More people are giving out carbon dioxide.
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How does an increase in amount of energy being used affect the levels of Carbon Dioxide?
Energy comes from mainly the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide.
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How does an increase in deforestation affect the levels of Carbon Dioxide?
Plants are the main things taking Carbon Dioxide out of the atmosphere, so fewer plants means less carbon dioxide is taken out of the atmosphere.
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Why does an increase in population also mean an increase in demand of energy?
More energy needed for lighting, heating, cooking, transport ect. And more countries are becoming industrialised and well off, so the average energy demand per person is increasing-people have more electrical gadgets,more cars&more travel on planes
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Why does an increase in population also mean an increase in deforestation?
More land is needed to build houses and grow food. This space is often made by chopping down trees (deforestation)
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Why do scientists think levels of water vapour has gone down since the creation of the Earth?
as the Earth cooled down, most of the water vapour condensed and formed the oceans.
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Why do scientists think levels of carbon dioxide has gone down since the creation of the Earth?
it was absorbed by plants during photosynthesis, it was locked up in fossil fuels and it dissolved in the oceans.
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Why do scientists think levels of nitrogen has gone up since the creation of the Earth?
it is not very reactive and, once formed, it is not easily removed from the atmosphere again.
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Why do scientists think levels of oxygen has gone up since the creation of the Earth?
it was released by plants during photosynthesis
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Name one assumption that scientists make when developing their theories on the early earth's atmosphere.
that the early atmosphere was similar to the composition of gases released by volcanic activity today.
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Why does the high temperature inside an internal combustion engine allows nitrogen from the air to react with oxygen?
the temperature is above nitrogen's very high activation energy. This is the amount of energy that is needed for nitrogen to react, therefore, since the temperature is higher than this, the nitrogen can react with the oxygen.
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why is it important that atmospheric pollution is controlled?
It can cause the number of reparatory illnesses (e.g. asthma) to increase
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What is the word equation for catalytic conversion?
carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxide = nitrogen + carbon dioxide
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What is the balanced symbol equation for catalytic conversion?
2CO + 2NO → N˅2 + 2CO˅2
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What does a catalytic converter do?
convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide in car engines
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What three processes maintains the right balance of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

Back

Photosynthesis, Combustion and Respiration.

Card 3

Front

In the present day what are the levels of Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen doing?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name three common pollutants found in the air.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is carbon monoxide formed, and what is it?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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