C1a: Making Crude Oil

Articles on television and in newspapers show the unacceptable side of oil exploitation in terms of oil pollution at sea or on beaches. This item develops ideas about oil exploitation and how crude oil is changed into useful products such as fuels. It also demonstrates the importance of timescale with reference to non-renewable fuels. This item provides the opportunity to illustrate the use of ICT in science and technology when researching oil exploitation and the industrial production of products from crude oil.The discussion about exploitation of oil raises ethical issues and allows consideration of some questions that science cannot currently answer. 

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Name three fossil fuels.
Oil, coal and Gas.
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What are non-renewable fuels?
Fuels which take a very long time to make and are used up faster than they are formed.
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What does fractional distillation do?
Separates crude oil into useful products called fractions.
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Why does fractional distillation work?
Because of differences in boiling points.
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What are the seven fractions obtained from crude oil?
LPG, petrol, diesel,
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What does LPG contain?
Propane and Butane gases.
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Name two environmental problems involved in exploitation of crude oil.
Oil slicks as result of accidents and damage to wildlife and beaches.
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Describe the process cracking.
Needs a catalyst and a high temperature, it converts large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones that are useful and it makes more petrol.
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What are finite resources?
Resources that are no longer being made or being made extremely slowly.
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of many hydrocarbons.
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What are the problems associated with the finite nature of crude oil? (3)
All the readily extractable resources will be used up in the future, finding replacements and conflict between making petrochemicals and fuels.
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How does fractional separate crude oil into fractions?
C.O is heated. Use of fractionating column which has temperature gradient.fractions containing mixtures of hydcarb are obtained.fract contain many substances with similar boil points.fractions with low boil point exit top, high boil point exit bottom
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What is the temperature gradient in a fractioning column?
Cold at the top, Warm at the bottom.
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Why can crude oil be separated by fractional distillation?
Because the hydrocarbons have different boiling points.
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Describe different hydrocarbons boiling points.
small hydrocarbons with only a few carbon atoms have low boiling points and are gases. hydrocarbons with between five and 12 carbon atoms are usually liquids. large hydrocarbons with many carbon atoms have high boiling points and are solids.
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Describe what happens to the forces and bonds during boiling.
The intermolecular forces between molecules break but covalent bonds within the molecule do not.
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Name two of the potential environmental problems involved in transporting crude oil.
Damage to birds feathers causing death and use of detergents to clean up oil slicks and consequent damage to wildlife.
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What does cracking do?
It converts large alkane molecules into smaller alkene and alkane molecules. Makes useful alkene molecules that can be used to make polymers.
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What are the two political problems with the exploitation of crude oil?
UK dependent on oil and gas from politically unstable countries and future supply issues.
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What is cracking an example of?
Thermal decomposition
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What is LPG used for?
Bottled Gas.
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What is petrol used for?
Fuel for cars
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What is paraffin used for?
Fuel for aircrafts
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What is diesel used for?
Fuel for cars lorries and buses.
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What is Heating oil used for?
Fuel for central heating
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What is fuel oil used for?
Fuel for ships and power stations.
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What is residue used for?
Bitumen for roads and roofs.
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Factors of small molecules
low boiling point, very volatile, flows easily and ignites easily.
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Factors of large molecules
High boiling point, not very volatile, doesn't low easily, and doesn't ignite easily.
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What happens to fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules?
Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are vaporised and passed over a hot catalyst. This breaks chemical bonds in the molecules and forms smaller hydrocarbon molecules.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are non-renewable fuels?


Fuels which take a very long time to make and are used up faster than they are formed.

Card 3


What does fractional distillation do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why does fractional distillation work?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the seven fractions obtained from crude oil?


Preview of the front of card 5
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