C1 - Unit 1

What is limestone made from?
Calcium carbonate.
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What does the thermal decomposition of limestone create?
Calcium oxide and CO2
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How is cement created?
Heating limestone and clay in a kiln.
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How is mortar made?
Mixing cement and sand with water.
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How is concrete made?
Mixing aggregate with cement, sand and water.
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What is a reduction reaction?
When carbon removes oxygen from the oxide to produce the metal.
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How is iron made?
Iron oxide is reduced in a blast furnace.
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How is copper extracted?
By smelting copper-rich ores, by displacement or electrolysis of copper salt solutions or bioleaching and phytomining from low grade ores.
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How can you separate mixtures of liquids?
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How is crude oil separated into fractions?
Fractional distillation.
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How can large hydrocarbons be broken down?
1. Heating a mixture of hydrocarbon vapours and steam to a high temperature. 2. Passing hydrocarbons over a hot catalyst.
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How is ethanol made?
1. Fermenting sugar using enzymes in yest. 2. Hydrating ethene with steam in the presence of a catalyst.
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How are vegetable oils extracted?
Pressing or by distillation of seeds, nuts and fruits.
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What are emulsifiers?
Made from vegetable oils and are used to stop oil and water from spreading into layers, e.g. Ice cream.
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What layers make up the earth?
Crust, mantle and core.
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Why do tectonic plates move?
Because of convection currents in the mantle.
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What is the atmosphere made up of?
80% nitrogen, 20% oxygen and 1% other gases (CO2, water vapour and noble gases).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does the thermal decomposition of limestone create?


Calcium oxide and CO2

Card 3


How is cement created?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How is mortar made?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How is concrete made?


Preview of the front of card 5
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