C1 Metals and their uses

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 09-06-14 20:08
What is an ore?
Rock that contains enough of a metal or a metal compound to make it worth extracting the metal.
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What is the problem of mining ores?
It involves digging up large amounts of rock which can produce large amounts of waste and have major impacts on the environment.
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What may need to occur in beofre a metal is extracted?
The ore may need to be concentrated.
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How are un reactive etals extracted?
1. They are found in the earth as the metal. 2. They can be extracted by physical methods.
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What are the majority of emtals found as?
Metal compounds
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How are metals extracted form compounds?
Using chemical methods.
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Describe how metals can be extracted from compounds by displacement?
Those less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by heating with carbon. 2. Reduction reaction takes place as carbon removes the oxygen from the oxide to produce the metal.
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What are ores used to produce iron contain alot of?
Iron (iii) oxide.
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Describe how iron is extracted from iron oxide?
1. Iron oxide is reduced at high temperatures in a blast furnace using carbon.
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Why does iron form a blast furnace have only few uses?
The produced contains 96% iron and the impurities make it hard and brittle and so it has few uses as a cast iron
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Why would removing all the impurities of iron produced in a blast furnace reduce its use even more?
It would make it very soft so there it would have little use
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What is steel?
Steels are alloys of iron because they are mixtures of iron, carbon and other elements.
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Why are alloys made?
So that they have properties for specific uses.
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What is the difference of low carbon steel and high carbo steel?
Low carbon steel can be easily shaped whilst high-carbon steel is hard.
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What is stainless steel?
An iron alloy which contains larger quantities of other metals, and they resist corrosion/
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What are the features of aluminium?
it has a low density, high in the reactivity series and it is resistant to corrosion.
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Can aluminium be reduced?
No because it is more reactive than carbon.
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How is aluminium extracted?
1. Electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide 2. High temperatures 3. A lot of electricity 4. Expensive
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What is the problem of pure aluminium?
It is not very strong so they are made into alloys which are stronger and harder.
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What are the features of titanium?
1. Resistant to corrosion 2. Very strong 3. low density
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Can titanium be reduced?
Yes because it is lower than carbon in the reactive. However the reaction with carbon makes titanium brittle.
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Why is it expensive to make titanium?
1. the process involves lots of stages and large amounts of energy. The high costs of the process makes titanium expensive.
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Where can copper be extracted from?
1. Copper-rich ores
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How is copper extracted? Describe the process?
Smelting - heating the ore strongly in a furnace.
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What is the product of smelting?
Impure copper which has to be purified by electorlysis.
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hat are the disadvantages to smelting and electrolysis of copper?
They require huge amounts of electricity and heating.
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What are scientists trying to develop to get copper and why?
Low grade ores of copper because copper-rich ores are a limited resource.
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What are the two ways coppers can be extracted in an environmentally friendly way?
1. Phytomining 2. Bioloaching
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Describe phytomining.
This uses plants to absorb copper compounds form the ground. The plants are burnt and copper is extracted from their ash.
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Describe bioleaching
Uses bacteria to produce solutions including copper compounds. 1. Displacement reaction occurs when a more reactive metal is reacted with the solution 2. electrolysis.
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What are the tree ways to produce copper metal form its compounds?
1. Smelting 2. Displacement 3. electrolysis
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What are the properties of transition metals?
1. Good conductors of heat and electricity 3. strong 3. malleable
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What are transition metals used in?
Buildings, Vehicles, Containers pipes/
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What are the properties of copper?
1. good conductor of heat 2. Does not react with water 3. Can be bent
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Why are the properties for copper useful?
1. Pipes and tanks for water and heating systems 2. Used for electrical wiring because it is good conductor of electricity.
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What are pure iron,copper, gold and aluminium all have n common?
They are easily bent and often mixed with other elements to make alloys that harder.
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What are iron, Gold, Aluminium used for?
Iron made into steels. Gold is used in Jewellery. Aluminium is used in buildings and aircraft and is alliys.
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What do copper alooys contain?
Bronze and Brass
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What are the alternatives to mining metal ores?
Recycling - saves resources so less ore needs to be mined. Less fossil fuel needed to provide the energy to extract the metal form it's ore.
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What are the 4 benefits of using metals in construction?
1. Strong 2. Bent into shape 3. Flexible wires 4. Good electrical conductors
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What are the 3 main drawbacks of using metal in construction?
1. Obtaining metals from ores causes pollution and limits resources 2. Metals are more expensive 3. Iron and steel can rust.
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Card 2

Front

What is the problem of mining ores?

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It involves digging up large amounts of rock which can produce large amounts of waste and have major impacts on the environment.

Card 3

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What may need to occur in beofre a metal is extracted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are un reactive etals extracted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What are the majority of emtals found as?

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