C1 key questions

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What are hydrocarbons?
Molelcules that are made up only of carbon and hydrogen
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What is fractional distillation?
A method of separating a mixture of liquids, each with a different boiling point
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Name some things that need to be considered before choosing a fuel.
Energy released, price, ease of storgae, toxicity, pollution and how much is left
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What are the differences between a blue and orange flame?
Clean blue flame shows complete combustion is taking place. Orange flame shows incomplete combustion is taking place.
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Name the main gasses in the air
78% nitrogen. 21% oxygen. 1% other gasses
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What do catalytic converters do?
They reduce harmful emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. The catalytic converter works by converting gases into water vapour and less harmful gases.
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How are polymers made?
Monomers can be joined together to make a polymer. High pressure and a catalyst is needed for polymerisation.
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What is the main difference between alkanes and alkenes?
Alkanes only have single covalent bonds. Alkenes have one or more double covalent bond.
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What is the test for saturation?
Bromine water is added to an alkane/alkene. If the bromine water decolourises it is an alkene, if not it is an alkane.
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Name some problems with using polymers.
They can be difficult to dispose of and are non-biodegradable so fill up landfills.
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How do proteins change when they are cooked?
They denature, causing the texture and appearance of the food to change. The cell walls are broken down and the cells become soft. Starch grains swell up and are released.
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What is thermal decomposition?
The use of heat to break down a substance into two or more substances.
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What properties does a good perfume have?
Evaporates easily, isn't toxic, doesn't irritate, not dissolvable in water and doesn't react with water.
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Why do we test cosmetics before they are sold?
To make sure they are safe to use
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Why is animal testing banned?
It is cruel to animals and animals don't have the same body chemistry as humans, so test results might not be useful.
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What are the three parts of paint?
Pigment, binding medium and solvent.
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What does the pigment do?
Gives the paint colour.
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What does the binding medium do?
It's an oil that sticks the pigment to the surface that it's being painted onto.
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What does the solvent do?
Thins the thick binding medium and makes it easier to coat to the surface.
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Write a balanced equation for the complete combustion of methane.
CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O
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What is the difference between a saturated and a unsaturated molecule?
A saturated molecule has no double covalent bonds so cannot contain any more atoms.
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How does an emulsifier stop oil and water from separating?
The hydrophilic end attracts to the water molecules. The hydrophobic end attracts to the oil. This attraction holds the oil and water molecules together, stopping them from separating.
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What does volatile mean?
The substance evaporates easily.
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Describe the forces between the molecules in volatile liquids.
The molecules are held together by weak forces of attraction. The molecules that have lots of energy can easily overcome the weak forces of attraction and escape.
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Oil paint is a colloid. What does this mean?
A liquid with small particles dispersed throughout it, forming neither solution nor sediment
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What is thermochromic paint?
They change colour when heated or cooled.
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What is a phosphorescent paint?
They glow in the dark by storing energy and releasing it as light when it's dark.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is fractional distillation?

Back

A method of separating a mixture of liquids, each with a different boiling point

Card 3

Front

Name some things that need to be considered before choosing a fuel.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the differences between a blue and orange flame?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name the main gasses in the air

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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