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What charges do the neutrons, protons and electrons have?
N = neutral, P = positive, E = Negative
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What happens to the charge when an electron is lost?
It becomes positive
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What are ions?
Charges atoms
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What happens when positive and negative ions meet?
They are attracted to each other
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What is the difference between displayed and molecular formulas?
Molecular written out (H20), displayed is shown with lines
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What is the molecular formular for hydrochloric acid?
HCl
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What is the molecular formular for calcium chloride?
CaCl2
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What is the molecular formular for magnesium chloride?
MgCl2
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What is the molecular formular for sodium carbonate?
Na2CO3
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What is the molecular formular for calcium carbonate?
CaCO3
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What is the molecular formular for sulfuric acid?
H2SO4
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What is the molecular formular for magnesium sulfate?
MgSO4
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Name the four types of additives?
Food colouring, flavour enhancers, antioxidants (preserve) and emulsifiers
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What happens when you mix oil and water?
They seperate and the oil floats on the water as it is less dense
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What does the hydrophilic head bond with?
The water
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What does the hydrophobic tail bond with?
The oil
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Why do we cook food? (5 reasons)
taste better, improve texture, digestable, kill microbes, make non-toxic
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What happens when you cook eggs and meat?
The protein changes shape as the heat energy breaks chemical bonds - edible texture (denaturing) and irriversible
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What happens when you cook potatoes?
The cell walls are ruptured, so the starch swells and spreads out - easier to digest
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Why can't we eat raw potatoes?
Humans can't digest the cellulose used to make the cell walls
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What happens when you heat baking powder?
It undergoes thermal decomposition - it breaks down
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What chemical does baking powder contain?
sodium hydrocarbonate
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What is the word equation for thermal decomposition?
sodium hydrocarbonate = sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water
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What is the symbol equation for thermal decomposition?
2NaHCO3 = Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
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How does baking powder make cakes rise?
It produces carbon dioxide which makes the cake rise
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What is the chemical test for carbon dioxide?
It turns limewater cloudy when bubbled through it
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What is used in perfumes as the smell?
Esthers
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What is the word equation for making esthers?
(CARBOXYLIC) Acid + Alcohol = Esther + Water
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Name 5 key properties of esthers
Easily evaporate (so it can be smelt), non-toxic, doesn't react with water, doesn't irritate skin, insoluble in water
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What is controversial about perfume testing?
It involves animal testing and the animals get no benefit from the product
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What state of matter has the strongest force between particles?
Solids
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Explain how liquids evaporate
When a liquid is heat, particles move faster. Some particles move faster than others. Fast moving particles at the surface will overcome attraction and escape. Easiness of evaporation = volatility
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Explain why volatility is the key to smelling
The more particles that can evaporate, the more there is to smell. Perfumes have weakly attracted particles so that they can evaporate
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What is a solution?
A mixture of a solvent (liquid) and a solute (solid) that does not seperate
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What does soluble mean?
It dissolves
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What does insoluble mean?
It won't dissolve
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What is solubilty?
A measure of how much will dissolve
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Why does nail varnish not dissolve in water? (2 reasons)
1) The attraction between water molecules is stronger than the attraction between the water and the nail varnish 2) The attraction between nail varnish molecules is stronger than the attraction between the nail varnish and the water
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Why is nail varnish soluble in acetone?
The attraction between the acetone and the nail varnish molecules is stronger than the attraction within the two substances
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What gives paint their colour?
Pigments
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What is a binding medium?
The liquid that carries the pigment. Once the surface has been painted, the binding medium goes solid
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What is the solvent?
The stuff that thins and makes painting easier
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Paint is a colloid. What does that mean?
Really tiny particles (gas/solid/liquid) are dispersed in something else - they are not dissolved
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Why don't colloids seperate?
Because the particles are so small that they don't settle at the bottom
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How do water-based paints (e.g. emulsion paints) dry?
The water is the solvent and the binding medium is an acyrlic or vinyl acetate polymer. When the solvent evaporates, the binder and pigment are left as a thin solid film.
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What are two benefits of emulsion paints?
1) Fast drying 2) Don't produce harmful fumes
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How do oil-based paints (e.g. gloss paints) dry?
binding material is oil and the solvent is an organic compound that dissolves in water. 1) the solvent evaporates 2)oil is oxidisied by oxygen in the air before it turns solid
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What are three benefits of gloss paints?
glossy, waterproof and hard-wearing
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What are two disadvantages of gloss paints?
They take a long time to try and they produce harmful fumes
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What do thermochromic pigments do?
Change colour or become transparent when heated or cooled
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Name three uses of thermochromic pigments?
baby toys, drinks mugs, mood rings
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What happens if thermochromic paints are mixed with regular paints?
If blue thermochromic paint is mixed with yellow paint, when cool the product will be green, but when heated it will go yellow
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What do phosphorescent pigments do?
Glow in the dark
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How do phosphorescent pigments work?
They absorb natural/artifical light and store the energy in their molecules. This energy is released as light over time
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Name three examples of phosphorescent pigments?
toys, traffic signs and watch hands
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What was the previous alternative to phosphorescent pigments?
Radioactive paint - not safe
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What is a polymer?
When lots of monomers are joined together
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Give an example of polymers?
Plastics
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What do monomers used for addition polymers need?
Double covalent bonds (they are unsaturated)
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What is addition polymerisation?
When lots of unsaturated monomers open their double bonds and join together
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What do weak forces between the atoms in te polymer chains mean?
Chains can slide over each other so they can be stretched easily and have a low melting point
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What do strong forces between the atoms in te polymer chains mean?
They have high melting points and are rigid and can't be stretched
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What could a strong, rigid plastic be used for?
Milk bottles
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What are the qualities of PVC?
It is strong and durable and either rigid or stretchy
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Name a polymer used to make clothes and a problem with it
Nylon is not waterproof
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Why is the issue with coating things with polyurethane so they are waterproof?
It isn't breathable - water vapour cannot escape
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How do GORE-TEX materials work?
A thin film of expanded PTFE is laminated onto another layer of polyester/nylon. The PTFE is therefore studier. It has tiny holes so water vapour can get out, but the holes aren't big enough for water to get in
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Name 2 issues with disposing plastics
1) Not biodegradable so take up landfill space 2)Burning releases toxic
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Wnat is a hydrocarbon?
a compound only containing only carbon adn hydrogen atoms
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What type of bonding holds all molecules in hydrocarbons together?
Covalent (they share electrons)
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What type of bonds do alkanes have?
C-C single bonds so are saturated
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How do you know if you have an alkene or an alkane?
Add to bromine water - only alkenes can turn solution colourless
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Can alkanes form polymers?
No because there are no double bonds to open and connect to other molecules
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What are the first four alkanes?
methane, ethane, propane and butane
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How are alkenes bonded?
C=C double bonds (unsaturated)
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What are the first three alkenes?
Ethene, propene and butene
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What do alkenes form when mixed with bromine water?
Dibromo compounds
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What are the columns of fractional distillation (bottom to top)
Bitumen, Oil, Diesel, Kerosene, Naptha, Petrol, LPG
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Where are the largest hydrocarbons in fractional distillation and why?
bottom as hottest part and they have the highest boiling point as there are more points to overcome the intermolecules
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What 4 things happen as hydrocarbon chains get longer
1)higher boiling point 2)less flammable 3)more viscous 4)less volatile
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What is cracking?
Using thermal decomposition to break down long alkanes into smaller alkanes and alkenes
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What conditions are needed for cracking?
400-700 degrees, aluminium oxide catalyst
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What is the point of cracking?
Helps to meet supply and demand - more supply for shorter hydrocarbon chains e.g. petrol and kerosene
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What do you need to consider when choosing a fuel? 7 points
energy value, availability, storage, cost, toxicity, ease of use, pollution
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What is the word equation for complete combustion of hydrocarbons?
hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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What is the general formula for alkenes?
CnH2n
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What is the word equation for incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons?
hydrocarbon + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon (+energy)
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What is the first phase of the Earth's evolution?
molton surface, cooled, volcanoes erupted, carbon dioxide, steam and ammonia, seas formed
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What is the second phase of the Earth's evolution?
carbon dioxide dissolved into the ocen, green plants, removed carbon dioxide, produced oxygen, air builts up, carbon dioxide locked in fossil fuels and sedimentary rocks, nitrogen added to atmosphere from reaction with oxygen + denitrifying bacteria
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What is the third phase of the Earth's evolution?
Build up of oxygen killed early organisms, evolution of more complex organisms, ozone layer formed, almost no carbon dioxide left
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What is the present composition of the Earth's atmosphere?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.035% carbon dioxide
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What is happening to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
It is increasing due to high populations and more electrical appliances
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What two things are needed for acid rain?
Sulfur Dioxide and Oxides and Nitrogens
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What is wrong with acid rain?
It kills fish and trees and damages limestone buildings and stone statues
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What do oxides of nitrogen cause?
Photochemical smog when they combine with the oxygen in the air to produce ozone
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What can carbon monoxide cause?
fainting, comas and death
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What do catalytic converters do?
Reduce the amount of carbon monoxide and nitogen oxides entering the atmosphere
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What is the word equation for catalytic converters?
carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxide = nitrogen + carbon dioxide
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What two catalysts can be used for catalytic converters?
platinum and rhodium
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens to the charge when an electron is lost?

Back

It becomes positive

Card 3

Front

What are ions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when positive and negative ions meet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the difference between displayed and molecular formulas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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