C1 Crude oil and fuels

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  • Created by: KAustria
  • Created on: 09-06-14 21:12
What is crude oil?
A mixture of different compounds that coil at different temperatures and conditions.
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How can you sparate liquids?
BY distillation
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What are fractions?
Liquids of different boiling ranges separated by distillation
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What are most of the compounds in crude oil?
Hydrocarbons (hydrogen + carbon)
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What are the hydrocarbons in crude oil and what is their general forumla?
Alkanes - CnH2n+2
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Define saturated hydrocarbons
Alkenes that contain has many hydrogen atoms as possible.
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How and where is crude oil separated?
In refineries using fractional distillation.
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The larger the hydrocarbon, what is its boiling point like?
The higher the boiling point.
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How does a fractionating coloumn work?
A tall tower that is hot at the bottom and gets cooler going up the column.
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What form is crude oil in before entering the column?
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Describe what happens in a fractionating column
1. The vapourised crude oil moves up the column getting cooler as they go up 2. They hydrocarbons condense to liquids when they reach the level that is at their boiling point 3. Different liquids collect on trays at different levels
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WHere are hydrocarbons with the smallest molecules collected?
At the top
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What propertie would you expect for a fraction that is collected 1/3 of the way up a fractionating column?
Low boiling ranges have low viscosity so they are runny liquids. 2. Very Flammable - ignite easily 3. Produce little smoke 4. Useful as fuels
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What happens when pure hydrocarbons are burnt completely?
They are oxidised to carbon dioxide and water. But most fuels aren't burnt completely
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What is produced in incomplete combustion?
Carbon monoxide
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What is produced when carbon is produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons?
1. Solid particles that contain soot (carbon) and unburnt hydrocarbons called particulates.
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Name the 4 possible products of the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
1. water 2. carbon 3. carbon monoxide 4. unburnt hydrocarbon
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What does sulfur dioxide cause?
Acid rain
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How are nitrogen oxides formed and what do they cause?
Fuels burn , oxygen and nitrogen in the air may combine to form nitrogen oxides. It causes acid rain.
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Name the products that impose negative impacts on the environment and how?
1. Carbon dioxide- cause of GW 2. Carbon Monoxide - incomplete combustion of fuels 3. Particulates - global dimming.
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What 3 methods are used to reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide produced by burning fuels?
1. Catalytic converts in cars 2. Power stations 3. Removed form fossil fuel before they are burnt.
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What are biofuels?
Alternative fuels and from plant or animal products that are renewable.
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What is biodiesel?
can be made form vegetable pols extracted from plants.
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What are the advantages to biodiesel?
1. Little contrbution to carbon dioxide levels - Carbon dioxide given off is taken in by plants as they grow
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What are the disadvantages of biodiesel?
Plants grown for biodiesel use large areas of armland.
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Name two biofuels
Ethanol made form sugar cane or sugar beet.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as a fuel?
Adv: Only produces water when burnt Dis: electrolysis 2. gas takes up a large volume 3. difficult to store.
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Card 2


How can you sparate liquids?


BY distillation

Card 3


What are fractions?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are most of the compounds in crude oil?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the hydrocarbons in crude oil and what is their general forumla?


Preview of the front of card 5
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