C1: Carbon Chemistry

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  • Created by: Theex
  • Created on: 22-04-14 16:44
What does an emulsifier do?
Helps oil and water to mix
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The head of an emulsifier is hyrdo..... And the tail is hydro....
Head - Hydrophilic Tail - Hydrophobic
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Name 3 jobs of additives
Antioxidants (preserve), food colouring, flavour enhancers
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What happens to proteins when cooked?
They denature
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Name 5 things achieved by cooking
Better taste, better texture, easier to digest, kills microbes and some foods are posinous when raw
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Word equation for thermal decomposition of baking powder
Sodium hydrogencaronate -> sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water
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What happens to limewater when carbon dioxide is present
It turns cloudy
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Word equation for esterfication
Acid (Carboxylic acid) + Alcohol -> Ester + Water
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What conditions are necessary for esterfication
High temperature and an acid catalyst
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5 properties of perfume
Non-toxic, doesn't react with water, doesn't irritate skin, insoluble in water, volatile (evaporates easily)
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What is a solution?
A solute dissolved in a solvent
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Describe the attractive forces between particles in insouble substances
The attraction between particles of the substance are greater than attraction between the liquid particles and the substances' particles
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What is a colloid?
Tiny particles dispersed in a substance (not dissolved)
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What does a solvent do in paint?
Thins paint making it easier to spread
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How is the binding median linked to the pigment? and what does the pigment do?
The binding medium carries the pigment, which is what gives the paint colour
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How does a water-based paint dry?
Water evaporates which leaves a thin solid film
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How do oil-based paints dry?
First the solvent evaporates which then leads to the oil oxidising which turns the remaining paint solid
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What pigment causes something to glow in the dark?
Phosphorescent
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What pigment causes something to change colour when the temperature changes?
Thermochromic
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What are polymers made of and how are they made?
Monomers which are joined together by addition polymerisation
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What are monomers?
Unsaturated compounds
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What properties does a plastic with strong intermolecular bonds have?
Rigid and high melting point
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What properties does a plastic with weak intermolecular bonds have?
stretchy and low melting point
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What is gore-tex made of?
PTFE laminated onto nylon/polyester
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Name 2 Issues with no biodegradable plastics
Not decomposed, burning releases toxic gases
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms
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Are alkanes: saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated
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Standard molecular formula of alkanes?
C n H 2n+2
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Are alkenes: saturated or unsaturated?
Unsaturated (have a double bond)
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Standard molecular formula of alkenes?
C n H 2n
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What happens to bromine when an alkene is added?
It loses its colour
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What is crude oil? And what is it made of?
Its a fossil fuel, formed from the buried remains of plants and animals
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What is the name of the tower used to seperate the compounds within crude oil?
A fractional distillation tower
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What type of bonds are found within hydrocarbons?
Covalent bonds
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And between different hydrocarbons are the intermolecular forces strong or weak?
Weak compared to covalent bonds within
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What are the properties of longer hydrocarbon chains?
Less volatile, less flammable, more viscous and higher boiling points
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What conditions are used for the cracking of hydrocarbons?
Vaporised hydrocarbon is passed over a powdered, aluminium oxide, catalyst at 400 - 700 degrees celcius
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What is the word equation for complete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
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What is the word equation for incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + carbon monoxide + carbon (in the form of soot)
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What conditions cause incomplete combustion?
Lack of oxygen
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What is the present composition of the atmosphere?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.035% carbon dioxide
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List 3 ways carbon is added to the atmosphere?
repiration, combustion and decay
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How is carbon removed from the atmosphere?
Photosynthesis
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List 2 ways humans are increasing carbon levels?
deforestation and increased burning of fossil fuels
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What gases cause acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide
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List 3 impacts upon humans of increased carbon monoxide in the atmosphere
increase in fainting, comas and deaths due reduction in oxygen in red blood cells
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Oxides of what cause photochemical smog?
oxides of nitrogen
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What 2 catalysts are used in catalytic convertors
Platinum and rhodium
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Symbol equation for catalytic convertors?
2CO + 2NO -> N2 + 2CO2
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Head - Hydrophilic Tail - Hydrophobic

Back

The head of an emulsifier is hyrdo..... And the tail is hydro....

Card 3

Front

Antioxidants (preserve), food colouring, flavour enhancers

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

They denature

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Better taste, better texture, easier to digest, kills microbes and some foods are posinous when raw

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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