C1, C2, C3

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  • Created by: apple87
  • Created on: 31-05-14 18:17
How are sedimentary rocks formed?
Forme when layers of sediment laid down in seas of lakes, over millions of years layers get buried the weight squeezes the water out. Fluids flowing through the pores deposit natural mineral cement.
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What is limestone made of mostly?
Sea shells, it is mostly calciu carbonate the shells are crushed.
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How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Formed by heat and pressure on sedimentary over lond periods of time. The mineral structure changes but chemical composistion is often the same. If they melt they are no longeer classed as metamorphic.
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Give an example of a metamorphic rock?
Marble, which is anouther form of calcium carbonate. The crystals are much smaller than limestone
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How are Igneous rocks formed?
When magma cools, they contain various different materials in randomly arranged interlocking crystals this makes it very hard.
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The more slowly the magma cools the,..., the crystals
bigger
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The faster the magma cools the,...,the crystals
smaller
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How is glass made?
Melting limestone, sand and soda(sodium carbonate). As it cools out comes glass.
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How is clay formed?
From weathered decomposed rock and is soft when dug up.
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How is cement made?
Powdered clay and powdered limestone are roasted in a kiln.
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What is clay made up of?
Aluminium and silicates
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How is concrete made?
Cement is mixed with sand and aggregate and water.
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What are the advantages of reinenforced concrete over normal concrete?
It combines the hardness of concrete with the flexibilit and strength of steel.
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How do you work out the rate of reaction?
volume of gas produced/time in seconds
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How do you minimise the cost of production?
Price of energy, cost of raw materials, labour costs, plant costs, rate of production.
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What are the products of reacting an acid and a metal oxide together?
Acid+Metal oxide --> salt + water
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What are the products of reacting an acid and a metal hydroxide together?
Acid+Metal oxide --> Salt + Water
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What are the products of reacting an acid and a carbonate together?
Acid+ Carbonate --> Salt + Water+ Carbond dioxide
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What are the products of reacting and acid and ammonia together?
Acid + Ammonia --> Ammonium salt
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Give three example of ammonium salts.
Ammonium chloride, ammonium sulphate, ammounium nitrate
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Describe phase 1 of the evolution of the atmosphere.
The Earths surface was molten for millions o years the atmospher boiled away. Eventually it cooled and a crust appeared. Volcanoes kept erupting releasing CO2 mainly and ammonia and steam. Early atmospher was mostly CO2 and water vapour, formed ocean
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Describe phase two of the evolution of the atmosphere.
Green plants evolved absorbing CO2 and releasing oxygen, CO2 was locked in fossil fuels and sedimentary rocks. N2 was released by ammonia reacting with oxygen and by denitrifying bacteria.
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Describe phase three of the evolution of the atmosphere.
Oxygen killed of early organisms. More complex organisms evolved. The ozone layer was created, O3. This blocked harmful UV rays.
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What sort of reaction isand alkene reaction with bromine water?
Addition reaction
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What sort of compound is formed when and alkene and bromine water react?
Dibromo compund
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How would you make an ester?
Mix a carboxylic acid like ethanoic acid with an alcohol like ethanol. Add sulphuric acid and warm gently for 5 min. Tip the mixture into sodium carbonate solution to neutralise the acid.
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What do you have to consider when choosing a fuel?
Energy value, availability,, storage, cost, ease of use, pollution.
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What are strong rigid polymers used for?
Pastic milk bottles
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What are light stretchable polymers used for?
Plastic bags and squeezy bottles.
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How does GORE-TEX work?
The PTFE film has tiny holes which let water vapour through. Water droplets are too large to pass through the holes. And the PTFE repels the liquid water.
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How would you prepare ammonium nitrate in a lab?
Add a few drops of methyl orange indicator to the ammonia. Slowly add the nitric acid from the burette untill the colour changes redEvaporat to get ammonium nitrate crystals. Repeat withoout indicator to get pure ammonium nitrate.
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What is the balanced symbol equation for the garber process?
N2 + 3H2 --> 2NH3
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What are the industrial conditions for the Harber process?
450 degrees and 200 atmospheres Iron catalyst
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What is the negative electrode called?
Cathode
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What is the positive electrode called?
Anode
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What is a reduction reaction?
The gain of electrons or the removal of oxygen.
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What is an oxidation reaction?
The loss of electrons or the addition of oxygen.
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What is the chemical equation for the reaction at the cathode?
Cu2+ + 2e- --> Cu
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What is the chemical equation for the reaction at the anode?
Cu --> Cu2+ + 2e-
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is limestone made of mostly?

Back

Sea shells, it is mostly calciu carbonate the shells are crushed.

Card 3

Front

How are metamorphic rocks formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a metamorphic rock?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are Igneous rocks formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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