C1, C2 and C3

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  • Created by: Biancaa
  • Created on: 14-05-14 20:42
What is complete combustion?
plenty of oxygen, elements in the fuel react fully with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water is produced. Safe and non poisonous products.
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What is incomplete combustion?
Incomplete combustion occurs when the supply of air or oxygen is poor. Water is still produced, but carbon monoxide and carbon are produced instead of carbon dioxide.
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What is the effect of sulphur dioxide?
acid rain- damages buildings, plants and fish
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What is the effect of carbon monoxide?
Heart conditions, oxygen changes in blood, poisonous
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What is wet scrubbing
Spraying sea water on flue gases-substance in sea water react with sulphur dioxide. Calcium oxide mixed with air and sprayed on sulphur dioxide forms calcium sulphate (building plaster)
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What is the effect of nitrogen dioxide
Can cause breathing problems
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How to improve air quality in vehicles
develop more efficient engines, use less fuels containing sulphur, use catalytic converters(which reduces carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide)
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What are synthetic materials made from?
Its made from chemicals, from crude oil.
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Explain the process of fraction distillation
crude oil is heated until compounds evapourate, the gas enters a fractionating column and the liquid, bitumen, is drained off at the bottom. The column has a temperature gradient (hot at the bottom and cooler at the top).
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What is crude oil made of
a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules of different lengths
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What is the effect of making polymer chains longer
The effect on the properties of increasing the length of the polymer chain is similar to the effect of increasing crystallinity. The material becomes stronger, stiffer and the melting point gets higher.
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What is the effect of adding cross-links?
Makes chains in the polymer link together. Without it, chains will overlap. It makes rubber stronger with a higher boiling point and less flexible.
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What is the effect of adding plasticisers?
THis makes the polymer more flexible.
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What is PVC made from?
ethene (crude oil) and chlorine (from the electrolysis of brine) which combines to make vinyl chloride(cancerous) (long chains of polyvinyl chlorde
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The disadvantages of nanotechnology
It can have harmful effects on health because it;s new technology and has not been investigated. can be toxic. Can enter the brain via bloodstream.
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What can nanotechnolgy do?
Silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties. Adding nanoparticles to plastics for sports equipment can make them stronger. It also provides sun cream with a more natural appearance. Better UV and stain resistant in clothes.
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Describe the incineration of polymers
Polymers release a lot of heat energy when burned. This energy can heat homes or generate electricity. CO2 is produced and adds to global warming. Toxic gases are also produced unless it's incinerated at high temperatures.
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What is clay and how can it become useful?
Clay is a mineral formed from weathered and decomposed rock. It is soft when dug up but it is easy to mould into bricks.
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What is alkali used for?
neutralising acidic soil, making chemicals to bind dyes to cloth, converting fats and oils into soap, making glass
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What happens when an alkali and acid is reacted?
it forms a salt (sodium chloride for example) and water. But when it is a soluble alkali carbonate with an acid, it makes salt, water and CO2.
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What is chlorine>
It is made from a sodium chloride solution (brine)
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How is brine produced?
Electricity passes through brine causing the sodium chloride and water to rearrange to make new products: chlrine gas, hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide solution.
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What is chlorine gas for?
treats water, makes bleach, plastics and hydrochloric acid
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What is hydrogen gas for?
a fuel, used to make hydrochloric acid
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What is sodium hydroxide solution used for?
makes soap, paper and bleach
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is incomplete combustion?

Back

Incomplete combustion occurs when the supply of air or oxygen is poor. Water is still produced, but carbon monoxide and carbon are produced instead of carbon dioxide.

Card 3

Front

What is the effect of sulphur dioxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the effect of carbon monoxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is wet scrubbing

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Caitlin Ward

These are great revision cards but could you show which ones are each unit?

Aiden Cowdrey

Good work. Easy to revise, simple but useful answers.

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