C1 C2 & C3

C1 - Air Quality

C2- Material Choices

C3 - Chemicals in our lives

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Where did the CO2 of the Earths early atmosphere come from?
The earths surface was first molten, when it cooled, a thin crust formed but volcanoes kept erupting CO2, N2 and water vapour creating the earths first atmosphere
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What are the 3 main gasses in the current atmosphere and what are their proportions?
Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21% and Argon 1%
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Name one result of pollution that causes direct harm to humans and one that causes indirect harm
Direct harm - Carbon monoxide causes diseases or death to humans if breathed in large enough quantities, Indirect harm - Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain which pollutes rivers and kills fish we catch and eat
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Atoms can disappear completely in a chemical reaction, true or false?
False, Atoms are rearranged in a chemical reaction
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What is a hydrocarbon?
They are compounds made entirely of hydrogen and carbons
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Name the main element that makes up coal
Coal contains some impurities but is mainly just carbon
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When a hydrocarbon fuel burns, with what substance in the air do the hydrogen and and carbon atoms combine?
They combine with oxygen
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When hydrocarbons burn in plenty oxygen, what is produced?
It produces carbon dioxide and water
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What removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
Naturally through plants and photosynthesis or, CO2 dissolves in rainwater, seas, lakes and rivers
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What atoms make up carbon monoxide? Under what condition is carbon monoxide produced?
Carbon and oxygen, it is produced when there is not enough for oxygen available when fuels burn
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What are particles of carbon otherwise known as and what kind of pollution do they cause?
Particulate carbon and they deposit themselves as soot
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Describe briefly how the pollutant sulfur dioxide is produced
When sulfur atoms burn, they combine with the oxygen in the air to produce sulfur dioxide
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How does sulfur dioxide leave the atmosphere?
It leaves the atmosphere in the form of acid rain
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What effects does acid rain have on the environment?
It causes lakes to become acidic killing plants and animals, it also kills trees and damages buildings and statues made from some kinds of stone
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Describe how nitrogen dioxide is produced when fossil fuels are burnt
Nitrogen in the air reacts with the oxygen in the air to produce small amounts of nitrogen oxides
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What affect do nitrogen oxides have on the enviroment?
It produces a dilute nitric acid that eventually falls to the earth as acid rain
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What do catalytic converters do?
They convert the toxic gas carbon monoxide into CO2 by adding oxygen and oxidation reaction
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Name 2 things that everyone could do in order to reduce CO2 pollution
Reduce the amount of fossil fuels burnt by using less electricity or by finding alternative energy sources
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How do MOT tests help combat air pollution
A cars emmissions are checked once a year
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Name a material that is made of atoms of one element only
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Name a material we use that comes from a) Plants and b) Animas
a) Cotton b) wool, silk
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What is the difference between strength and stiffness?
Strength is how good a material is at resisting force whereas stiffness is how good a material is at not bending when force is applied
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What is the advantage of synthetic rubber over natural rubber
The properties of synthetic rubber can be controlled to suit the need.
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What is the hardest material found in nature?
A diamond
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Define density
Density is a materials mass per unit volume (e.g. grams/cm3)
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Name two properties each for Plastic, rubber and Nylon that make them useful for manufacturing
Plastic- Some are mouldable, some have fairly low density, hard, strong, stiff Rubber -Strong but flexible, mouldable Nylon- Soft and flexible, good tensile strength
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What does crude oil contain?
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons
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Name the two important types of bonds in crude oil
They have the strong covalent bonds between the hydrogen and carbon molecules and the weaker intermolecular bonds between the different hydrocarbons
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Why do big hydrocarbons have higher boiling points than small ones?
Because the intermolecular forces of attraction are much stronger between the bigger covalent bonds making it harder to break. This means more energy is needed to break these bonds and turn the liquids to gas
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What happens when crude oil is refined
When crude oil is refined, hydrocarbons of different lengths are are separated for different uses
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Name the useful products of crude oil in order of the length of the hydrocarbon (shortest to longest)
Refinery gas, Petrol, Naphtha (a base for many chemicals), Kerosene (jet fuel), Diesel, Lubricating oil, Bitumen (used for road surfaces)
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What are most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil used to produce?
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Briefly describe what happens in polymerisation
Monomers are joined together (polymerised) under high pressure in order to form polymer. This usually forms plastics. Polymers are also usually carbon based
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Give an example of products where a polymer has replaced a natural material
Nylon and polyester have been used instead of natural materials like cotton, wool or silk and rigid PVC have replaced wood in window frames
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How does the arrangement of polymer chains affect the density of a material?
If the polymer chains are packed close together, the material will have a high density but if the chains are spread out, then the material will have a low density
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A polymer is easily stretched and has a low melting point. What can you say about the arrangement of its molecule chains and the forces holding them together?
The forces holding the chains together are probably weak and the molecule chains are free to slide over one another
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What would you add to a polymer to make it stiffer and stronger?
You can add cross link agents which chemically bond the chains together making the polymer stiffer and stronger
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How do plasticisers work?
They can be added to a polymer to make it softer and easier to shape. They work by getting between the polymer chains and weakening the forces
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What are the properties of a crystalline polymer?
It has straight chains with no branches so they can fit close together. They have a higher density, are stronger and have a higher melting point
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What is nanotechnology
The branch of technology dealing with the making and use of nano particles
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Give two examples of uses of nanomaterials
Nanoparticles are added to plastics in sport materials to make them stronger without adding weight. Silver nanoparticles are added to polymer fibres used in surgical masks and wound dressings to give them antibacterial properties
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What do tectonic plates float on?
They float on the mantle
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Why has Britain been located on different parts of the earth's surface?
This is because the plates are constantly moving a few centimeters per year
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Why does the earths oceanic crust have patterns of normal polarity and reversed polarity magnatised rock
This is because every half million years or so, the earths magnetic field swaps direction
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List the processes by which minerals are formed
Sedimentation, dissolving, evaporation, erosion and mountain building
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What is coal made from?
It consists mainly of the element carbon
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Where is salt mined in the UK?
Salt is extracted from the underground deposits where the salt is left behind after evaporation
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What is a rock salt?
Rock salt is a mixture of salt and impurities found in underground deposits
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Give three methods of obtaining salt industrially
Salt mining which involves physical extraction of rock salts, Solution mining where water is injected into the salt deposits through an outer pipe and evaporating seawater (only in hot countries like China and Australia)
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What is a food preservative?
Something added to foods to give them a longer life (e.g. salt)
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What is the main health concern associated with too much salt?
It could cause high blood pressure for about 30% of the UK population
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Name the three products of brine electrolysis
Hydrogen, Chlorine and sodium hydroxide
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Give the uses of chlorine
Disinfectants, Household bleach, killing bacteria (In swimming pools and household water supplies), plastics (e.g. PVC), Hydrochloric acid, Insecticides
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What is bleach made of?
By reacting chlorine with sodium hydroxide
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Name two toxic chemicals that can be used in large scale brine electrolysis
Mercury can contaminate rivers and fish that can cause people to become seriously ill if consumed and Asbestos can cause lung cancer
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Why is chlorine added to water supplies?
It kills disease-causing microorganisms, it can kill bacteria that enters the water supply after treatment on the water and it prevents growth of algae, gets rid of bad tastes and smells and can prevent discolouration caused by organic compounds
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What are chlorinated hydrocarbons?
They are the result of chlorine reacting with organic compounds in the water being treated. They can cause cancer
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What is an Alkali
It is a compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water
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Name three chemicals that are alkalis
Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide carbon carbonate
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What are the products of a reaction between calcium carbonate and sulfuric acid
calcium sulfate + water + carbon dioxide
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Why are alkalis added to some soils?
To neutralise acidic soils
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What happens when chemicals like DDT get into rivers?
They are taken up by small water plants,Each tiny animal eats lots of the plant, the fish eats the tiny animals, the eel eats a lot of the fish and the otters eat a lot of the eels. The DDT collects in the otters and eventually kills them
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What does LCA stand for?
Life cycle assessment
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What are the four stages considered when doing an LCA
Choice of material, Manufacture, product disposal and Using the product
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the 3 main gasses in the current atmosphere and what are their proportions?


Nitrogen 78%, Oxygen 21% and Argon 1%

Card 3


Name one result of pollution that causes direct harm to humans and one that causes indirect harm


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Atoms can disappear completely in a chemical reaction, true or false?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a hydrocarbon?


Preview of the front of card 5
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