C1 - Air Quality

What is the atmosphere which surrounds the earth made up of?
Nitrogen: 78% Oxygen: 21% Argon: < 1% Other gases and water vapour.
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What is air?
Air is a mixture of gases (molecules with large spaces between them.)
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How can other particulates and gases be released into the atmosphere?
Human activity (eg.power stations releasing particulates) or natural processes (eg. volcanoes releasing soot and sulpherous gasses.)
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How was earths early atmosphere created?
Earths early atmosphere was probably formed by volcanic activity. It consisted largely of carbon dioxide and water vapour.)
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How were the earths oceans formed?
Water vapour in the atmosphere condensed as the earth cooled to form the oceans.
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How was oxygen added to the atmosphere?
Photosynthesising organisms took carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and released oxygen into it.
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Name another way that carbon dioxide was removed from the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide dissolved into the ocean to form sedimentary rocks and by the formation of fossils.
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How has human activity changed the atmosphere?
Humans have added small amounts of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxode, carbon dioxide and particulates.
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How are pollutants directly harmful to humans?
Carbon monoxide causes lack of oxygen in the blood stream and sulphur dioxide causes acid rain which indirectly harms humans by damageing forrests, bulidings and water supplies.
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What is coal composed of?
Mainly carbon, with impurities such as sulphur.
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What are fossil fuels composed of?
Hydrocarbons. (hydrogen and carbon.)
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What happens when fuel burns?
Atoms of hydrogen and carbon bond with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water.
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What is oxidation?
When an atom gains oxygen it oxidises therefore combustion is an example of oxidation.
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What is reduction?
The loss of oxygen.
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Does fuel burn faster in air or in pure oxygen?
In pure oxygen.
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What would oxygen obtained from the atmosphere be used for?
To fuel combustion (eg. oxy-fuel welding torches.)
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Do the properties of the product differ from those of a reactant after a chemical reaction.
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What happens to atoms during a chemical reation?
They are rearranged.
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What is conservation of mass?
When chemicals react the mass of the product is always equal to the mass of the reactant.
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How is sulphur dioxide produced?
When fuels containing sulphur burn the sulphur oxidises by gainin two oxygen atoms.
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Which chemical pollutants are made when fossil fuels are burnt?
Carbon dioxide and sulphure dioxide, carbon moxide and particulate carbon, nitrogen oxides.
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Where do atmospheric pollutants go?
Particulate carbon is deposited on surfaces/ surphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide react with water to make acid rain/ carbon dioxide can be used in photosynthesis of be dissolved into water.
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How can atmospheric pollution caused by power stations burning fossil fuels be reduced?
Using less electricity/ removing sulphur from natural gas and oil/ removing sulphur dioxide from the flue gases emitted by coal burning power stations.
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How is sulphur dioxide removed from flue gases by wet scrubbing?
Using an alkaline slurry spray to neutralise the acid (calcium oxide and water) / Using sea water.
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What is the only way of reducing carbon emissions?
Burning less fossil fuels.
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Name four ways that atmospheric exhust emissions can be reduced.
More efficient engines/ using lower sulphur fuels/ using catalytic converters/ adjusting the balance between public and private transport/ having legal limits on exhausts.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is air?


Air is a mixture of gases (molecules with large spaces between them.)

Card 3


How can other particulates and gases be released into the atmosphere?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How was earths early atmosphere created?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How were the earths oceans formed?


Preview of the front of card 5
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