what are the layers of the earth?
crust, mantle, core
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what does the lithosphere make up?
the crust and top part of the mantle
2 of 65
what are the 2 types of techtonic plates in the lithosphere?
oceanic plate (under the ocean). Continetal plates (form the continents)
3 of 65
why do the plates sit on the top of the mantle?
because they are less dense
4 of 65
when the techtonic plates move, what does it cause??
earthquakes, volcanoes
5 of 65
what are convection currents caused by?
heat released from core
6 of 65
whats magma also known as?
molten rock
7 of 65
what is subduction?
when an oceanic plate collides with the continetal plate and then the oceanic plate slides under
8 of 65
what scientist began the theory that the earth changes?
alfred wegner in 1914
9 of 65
how do volcanoes form?
where magma can break through the earths crust easily.
10 of 65
where is weakness in the earths crust?
often at plate boundaries
11 of 65
what is the volcanic soil like?
more fertile
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how is igneous rock formed/
interlocking crystals at different sizes - when liquid rock cools
13 of 65
what is extracted from ores?
iron and alininium
14 of 65
how is brick made?
baking clay
15 of 65
what materials are made from sand?
glass, concrete and cement
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what rock can be extracted from the earth?
limestone, marble, granite and aggregates (gravel)
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whats an example of a sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rock?
sedimentary-limestone. metaphormic-marble. igneous-granite
18 of 65
whay is the word and symbol equation when calcium carbonate breaks down into carbon dioxide and carbon oxide
calcium carbonate --> calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide. (CaCo3 --> CaO + CO2)
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what type of reaction is it when calcium carbonate is heated?
thermal decomposition
20 of 65
what elements can be heated together to make cement?
clay and limestonw
21 of 65
what type of effect do quarries have on the environment?
be too noisy, take up land, change shape of the landscape, increase road traffic
22 of 65
how can copper be extracted?
copper ore
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whats the word equation for extracting copper by heating it with carbon?
copper oxide + carbon --> copper + carbon dioxide
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is it true or false that extracting copper by heating it with carbon dioxide is more expensive?
25 of 65
what is electrolysis used for?
to break compounds into small more useful substances
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What is the anode and what's it made out of?
Positives electrode and made f impure copper
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What is the cathode and what's it made out of?
Negatives electrode and made of pure copper
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What is an alloy
A mixtures rn a metal and another substance (normally a metal )
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What do alloys do?
Improve properties of metals making them more useful
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What is amalgam used for?
Is used for filling in teeth
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What is a smart alloy?
Can be bent and twisted and shape memory
32 of 65
What is used to make seatbelts?
Nylon fibre
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What is copper used to make in a car?
For the wiring
34 of 65
What is steel an allot of?
Iron and carbon - to make cars
35 of 65
What conditions are needed to rust metals?
Iron, water oxygen
36 of 65
What can speed up the rusting reactions?
Salty or acid rain
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What is the protective layer that aluminium creates when rusting starts to try and take place
Aluminium oxide
38 of 65
What is the word reaction for oxygen added to iron along with water?
Iron + oxygen + water = hydrated iron
39 of 65
Why can recycling be hard?
It's hard tom seperate the materials
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What materials from a car would cause toxic effects if in a landfill site?
Lead inn a car battery
41 of 65
What is ammonia made from?
Nitrogen and hydrogen
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What can ammonia be used to make?
Nitric acid and fertilisers
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what is the harbor process?
ammonia is made on a large scale
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what are the ractants from the harbor process?
nitrogen (from the air) and hydrogen (from natural gas or cracking of oil)
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why arent optimum conditions used in the harbor process? what is the compromise/
because it would be more expensive (high pressure, iron catalyst)
46 of 65
what does the cost of making new substances depend on?
price of gas and electricity, labor costs, how quickly substand can be made and cost of starting materials and equiptment needed
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what must the percentage yield be??
high enough to produce enough yeild of a product
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what are indictaors, acids and alkilis?
indicators - change colour when ph changes. acids - a pH lower than 7. alikilis - pH higher than 7
49 of 65
what are metal oxides and metal hydroxies?
they are bases
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what are bases in terms of metal oxides and hydrogen oxides?
they are added to acids in certain amounts and they then can cancel eachother out meaning the acid is now at a neutral pH of 7.
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what does the first name of a base or carbonate turn into when naming slats?
it turns into the base, and exmaple would be sodium hydroxide will make a sodium salt. a copper oxide will make a copper salt.
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what does the second name of the salt turn into when using acids?
hydrochloric acid will become chloride salt. sulfuric acid will become sulate salt.
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what are fertillisers?
chemicals which give plants essential nutrients to grow
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what do fertilisers do?
make crops grow bigger and faster and increase the amount made
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what is it known as when fertilisers kill animals?
56 of 65
what are the three main elemts found in fertilisers and what is their chemical symbol?
nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) potassium (K)
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how can some fertilisers be made?
by neutrilising an acid with an alkali
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what are the appartus used to fertilise using neutralisation?
filter funnel burette and measuring cylinder
59 of 65
if fertilisers are in water what do they produce? what does this process do?
algae which will grown and then blocks off the sunlight meaning that the fish and living organisms cant grow and be healthy therefor they die
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what is salt also known as?
sodium chloride
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what is electrolysis?
when concertrated sodium chloride is electrolysed and the electrodes are made which are very reactive
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what does the product in electrolysis form and what is it used for?
sodium hydroxide (in solution), hydrogen at chatode and chlorine at anode, used to make soap, hydrogen used to manufacture margerine
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how is hydrogen made in electrolysis of sodium chloride?
a reduction in the cathode
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how is chlorine made in electrolysis of sodium chloride?
oxidation of the anode
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what does the lithosphere make up?


the crust and top part of the mantle

Card 3


what are the 2 types of techtonic plates in the lithosphere?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


why do the plates sit on the top of the mantle?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


when the techtonic plates move, what does it cause??


Preview of the front of card 5
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A few spelling errors but overall quite useful thanks

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