What did phase one consist of?
That atmosphere was mostly co2, steam and nitrogen. Volcanoes gave out large amounts of gases
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How many phases are there in the evolution of the atmosphere?
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What was the earths surface like for many years?
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What eventually happened to the earth?
It cooled down slightly and formed a very thin crust, but volcanoes kept erupting very frequently.
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What did volcanoes produce a lot of?
Carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapour, this is how we THINK the atmosphere was formed
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How were oceans formed?
Water vapour condensed when the earth cooled
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What happened in phase two?
Green plants evolved and produced oxygen.
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Why was the earths old atmosphere perfect for green plants?
Because they had a huge source of carbon dioxide which they use for photosynthesis.
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Where did a lot of the carbon dioxide go?
Into the seas by dissolving
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Due to photosynthesis by green plants, what started changing in the atmosphere?
There was less carbon dioxide and more oxygen
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What happened to plants when they dies?
Theybwould be buried under layers of sediment.
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What happened during this process?
The carbontheybhad removed from the air would become "locked" into sedimentary rocks as insoluble carbonates and fossil fuels.
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What happened in phase 3?
Complex organisms evolved
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Due to the build up of oxygen in the atmosphere, what happened to some organisms?
They died as they couldn't tolerate the increasing oxygen levels
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When these organisms died, what happened to the other ones?
They were allowed to evolve into more complex organisms
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At this point in the atmosphere what is completely different to how we started?
There is virtually no oxygen
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What is the atmosphere made up of?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% Argon (due to these numbers being slightly rounded, there will be other small amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases)
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What is changing the atmosphere?
Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels
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What are humans doing to the atmosphere?
They are adding small amounts of pollutants into the atmosphere
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What are the 5 pollutants you need to know about?
1) carbon dioxide 2) carbon monoxide 3) particulates 4) sulfur dioxide 5) nitrogen oxides
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Gases and particulates can also be emitted by?
Nature eg. Volcanoes
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What pollutant is directly harmful to you?
Carbon monoxide
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How can carbon monoxide kill you?
It reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood and replaces it with carbon monoxide this can also lead to flu like symptoms.
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What pollutant is indirectly harmful to us?
Sulfur dioxide
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How does sulfur dioxide operate?
It causes acid rain, which pollutes rivers and lakes, killing the fish which is potential food for humans.
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What other pollutant is indirectly harmful to us?
Carbon dioxide
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why is carbon dioxide a huge problem at the moment?
They are leading to climate change, which brings an array of problems, like rising seal levels and disruptions to farming.
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How is carbon an air pollutant? (1)
Carbon is emitted into the air mostly through power stations, which burn fossil fuels,due to fossil fuels being hydrocarbons, when it burns with a good supply of oxygen, it emits carbon dioxide as a waste product.
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How is carbon an air pollutant? (2)
however if the carbon burns in a limited supply of oxygen, incomplete combistion will happen and carbon monoxide will be formed and so will carbon particulates.
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what is carbon dioxide made up of?
CO2 … one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms this makes a molecule of co2
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Why is carbon like any other atmospheric pollutant?
It will stay in the air until it has been removed
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How can carbon dioxide be used up naturally?
By photosynthesis or by dissolving into rainwater, rivers, lakes and seas
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What is the main cause of co2 increases?
By the burning of fossil fuels In Power stations.
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When there's an increase in co2 levels what else simultaneously increases?
Greenhouse gases, which increases to the green house effect and therefore causes the warming up of earth.
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What is carbon monoxide made up of?
One oxygen atom and one carbon atom therefore ... CO
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What are carbon particulates?
They are tiny particles of carbon which are produced when carbon is burnt incompletely
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What do they do once formed?
They float around in the atmosphere
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Eventually what do they do?
The settle onto the ground, creating what we call soot.
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What is the problems with carbon particulates?
People that have bad respiratory systems can suffer from worsened symptoms and it also settles on buildings and makes them unpleasant to look at.
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What is sulfur dioxide made up of?
One sulfur atom and two oxygen atoms
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Where does the sulfur pollution come from?
Immpurities in fuels (petrol, natural gas and coal due to being extracted straight from the earths crust)
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How is sulfur dioxide usually removed from the atmosphere?
In the form of acid rain
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How does it form acid rain?
When it is in the atmosphere, it will react slightly with the moisture in the clouds and over time it gets more and more concentrated.
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Why is this bad for the environment?
Causes lakes to become acidic, dammages trees and causes damage to building which are made of certain types of stone, like limestone.
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Where does the nitrogen pollution start?
In the atmosphere so we have large quantities of it.
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How are nitrogen oxides made?
When nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen in very high temperatures, for instance in car engines.
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What are the two nitrogen oxides?
Nitrogen monoxide and dioxide
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Nitrogen oxides are referred to as?
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How are nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen monoxide created?
They are both created at high temperatures, the only difference is, monoxide reacts with one oxygen atom and the other with two.
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Ways of reducing pollutants are?
Use less electricity therefore we burn less fossil fuels... But it would be hard to do this because we have become so used to technology.
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Ways of reducing pollutants are? (2)
Nowadays, we are able to remove the sulfur from fuel oil and natural gas, so there will be very little if no sulfur being burnt.
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Ways of reducing pollutants are? (3)
When burning coal, most of the sulfur dioxide and particulates can be removed from the chimneys before they go into the atmosphere... There are two ways of doing this
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How would an alkaline slurry (calcium oxide in water) be used to remove particulates and sulfur dioxide from the chimneys?
They would mix up a ground up solid and liquid (slurry) and then they would spray it onto the gases and the sulfur dioxide reacts with the calcium oxide. Here solid waste product is formed. In this case, calcium sulfate. This a a form of wet scrubbing
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Why is CO2 hard to reduce emissions for?
It means either reducing the amount of fossil fuels we burn or otherwise finding another energy source which is sustainable.
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How have ares developed to become more eco friendly?
They have more efficient engines, which burn less fuel and therefore create less pollution. Also, lower sulfur fuel is now available, which means less sulfur dioxide
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How have ares developed to become more eco friendly? (2)
Many cars are now equipped with catalytic converters which convert harmful nitrogen monoxide into harmless nitrogen and oxygen and also carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide. This is called an oxidisation reaction.
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What does the government do to help?
They have put a legal limit on the amount of feel you are allowed to emit. This is checked once every year in MOT tests.
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What is another way of reducing pollution so from cars?
Using more public transport, which means less cars on the road, which means less car emissions, which means less greenhouse gases.
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Are there any alternative fuels for cars?
Yes, biofuels. This is good because they are renewable energy sources made from plants and waste and they only produce carbon dioxide and water.
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Are there any alternatives for cars?
Hybrid or battery powered cars, however you will still be burning fossil fuels as you need to plug it in to charge which therefore will result in polutants.
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What atoms are joined together what do they make?
Molecules (moles)
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Chemical reactions happen when ?
Atoms are rearranged
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What do you start off with and end with in a chemical reactions?
Reactants and products
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What is not lost when doing a chemical reaction?
The mass. The mass or reactants must be equals to mass of products
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What changed in a chemical reactions?
The properties of reactants turning into products, for example. C + O2 ---> CO2 carbon is a black solid, oxygen is a colourless gas but carbon dioxide is a colourless gas, which is completely different to carbon.
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What are fossil fuels?
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What are they remains of ?
Dead plants and animals which dies millions of years ago.
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How are they extracted fro the earth?
They are drilled out in the form of crude oil
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What is a hydrocarbon made out of?
Hydrogen and carbon
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What is the only difference in hydrocarbons with different fuels?
The size of the molecule is different.
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Combustion is also a type of what?
Chemical reaction
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whoat are the main products of a burning hydrocarbon?
Water and carbon dioxide
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When oxygen is added to any reaction what is this called?
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How would you speed up the burning of a hydrocarbon?
Give it a supply of pure oxygen
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How is pure oxygen contained?
In pressurised cylinders
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Card 2


How many phases are there in the evolution of the atmosphere?



Card 3


What was the earths surface like for many years?


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Card 4


What eventually happened to the earth?


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Card 5


What did volcanoes produce a lot of?


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