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How many atoms are elements made from?
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What is the nucleus in atoms surrounded by?
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What are compounds?
More than two elements combined
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What is the electronic structure?
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What do nucleus contain?
Protons and neutrons
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Are protons positive,negative or neutral?
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Are electrons positive,negative or neutral?
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Are neutrons positive,negative or neutral?
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How do you find the number of protons and electrons?
By the mass number
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How do you find the number of neutrons?
The mass number take away the number of protons
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What are formed when metal reacts with a non mental?
Ions are formed
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What are ionic bonds?
Non metal and metal ions attracting
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What are covalent bonds?
Non metal atoms combine and share electrons
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Are atoms created/destroyed in a chemical reaction?
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What does the mass of product equal?
The mass of the reactants
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What is an ore?
Rock that has enough metal to make it worth extracting
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Where are metals found?
In the earth's crust
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What is reduction?
Using carbon to remove oxygen from the oxide to produce the metal
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How is iron oxide reduced?
In a blast furnace to produce iron
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What do steels contain?
Carefully controlled quantities or carbon and other elements
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How is copper extracted mostly?
Smelting or electrolysis
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What can be used to extract copper from low grade ores?
Phytomining or bioleaching
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What are properties of transition metals?
They are good conductors of heat and electricity. They are strong but can be bent
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Name three benefits of using metals in constructions.
Strong, bend into shape, flexible wires, good electrical conductors
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Name three drawbacks of using metals in constructions.
Iron/steel rust, more expensive than concrete, pollution
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of many different compounds
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What method seperates a mixture of liquids?
Fractional distilation
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What are most compounds in crude oil?
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Fractions with lower boiling points are........?
Less viscous and burn easily
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What is produced when hydrocarbons are burnt in the air?
Carbon dioxide and water
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What do sulfur compounds burn to produce?
Sulfur dioxide
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What can cause global warming?
Carbon dioxide
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What is produced when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide react?
Acid rain
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What can biodiesel be made from?
Vegetable oils
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What is ethanol made from sugar?
A biofuel
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What method produced alkanes and alkenes?
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How can cracking be done?
Heating hydrocarbon vapours and steam over a hot catalyst
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Are alkenes saturated?
No they are unsaturated
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What is a polymer?
A large molecule made when monomers join together?
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What is the process called when monomers join together?
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What can large hydrocarbons be broken into?
Smaller molecules by cracking
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What are shape memory polymers?
Polymers that change to their original shape when condition change
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Are polymers biodegradable? What are the disadvantages of polymers?
Not usually and they cause pollution, harm wildlife and cause landfill
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Name two methods that can be used to made ethanol.
Fermentation of yeast and hydration of ethene with steam
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What is needed to make ethanol with ethene?
Non renewable crude oil
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What can vegetable oil be extracted from?
Seeds, nuts, fruits, by pressing or distillation
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Name 4 advantages of vegetable oils.
Provide nutrients, provide a lot of energy, used in important foods and used to make biofuels
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How can vegetable oil be hardened?
By reacting with hydrogen at 60°C in a nickel catalyst
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What is the tail of an emulsifier called and does it love or hate water?
Hydrophobic and it hates water
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What is the head of an emulsifier called and does it love or hate water?
Hydrophilic and it loves water
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Why are emulsifiers used?
To stop oil and water seperating
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What are the 3 layers of the earth?
Core, mantel and crust
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Is the crust a thick or thin layer and where is it?
A thin layer at the surface
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What two layers break into tectonic plates?
Crust and upper mantle
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Why do tectonic plates move?
Because of convection currents in the mantle that are caused by radio active decay
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What was wegners theory?
His idea was that the Earth's continents were once joined together, but gradually moved apart over millions of years
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What did the earth's early atmosphere contain?
Carbon Dioxide
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What was the miller urey theory?
the idea that complex chemicals needed for living things to develop could be produced naturally on the early Earth.
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Where did most of the C02 get locked up?
In sedimentary rocks
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How much of the atmosphere is nitrogen and oxygen?
80% nitrogen and 20%
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What method can be used to seperate gases?
Gas distillation
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What allows carbon to move in and out of the atmosphere?
Plants, animals, oceans and rocks
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Why is the an increase in C02?
We burns fossil fuels
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What is limestone used to make?
Calcium oxide and cement
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What makes concrete?
Cement, aggregate, water and sand
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What product is other wise known as CaC03?
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How is cement made?
Heating limestone with clay in a kiln
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What is thermal decomposition?
Breaking down by heating
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CaC03 decomposes to make .......?
Ca0 and C02
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How is motar made?
Mixing cement and sand with water
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Name the four substances produced in the limestone cycle (in order)
Calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide solution
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How is calcium carbonate transformed into calcium oxide?
Heat, C02 is given off
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What is added to calcium oxide to produce calcium hydroxide?
A little water
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How is calcium hydroxide transformed into calcium hydroxide solution?
Add more water and filter
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What happens when C02 is added to calcium hydroide solution?
Calcium carbonate is produced
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the nucleus in atoms surrounded by?



Card 3


What are compounds?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the electronic structure?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do nucleus contain?


Preview of the front of card 5
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