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  • Created by: elseey
  • Created on: 08-04-14 08:56
What charge does a Proton have?
Positive
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What charge does a Neutron have?
Neutral
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What charge does an Electron have?
Negative
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What is the Formula for Carbon Dioxide?
CO₂
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What is the Formula for Carbon Monoxide?
CO
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What is the Formula for Hydrochloric Acid?
HCl
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What is the Formula for Magnesium Chloride?
MgCl₂
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What is the Formula for Sodium Carbonate?
Na₂CO₃
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What is the Formula for Sulfuric Acid?
H₂SO₄
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What do Emulsifiers do?
They help blend oil and water together, like in foods such as Salad Crem and Ice Cream
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Emulsifiers have molecucles which are made up of..
..a Hydrophilic Head (loves water) & a Hydrophobic Head (hates water)
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Is cooking an irreversible reaction?
No
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When cooking meat, what happens?
The heat breaks up some of the Chemical bonds, giving it an edible texture; it is called denaturing
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Why is Baking Soda used in cakes?
It releases Carbon Dioxide when it undergoes Thermal Decomposition, which makes the cake rise
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Esters can be made..
..Naturally & Artificially
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What is the process which Esters are made?
Esterification
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Acid + Alcohol ->
Ester + Water
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What properties does a Perfume need?
Easily evaporate; Non-toxic; Doesn't react with water; Doesn't irritate the skin; Insoluble in Water
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States of Matter depend on..
..the Forces between Particles
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If the force between particles is strong, its most likely going to be..
..a Solid
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If the force between particles is moderate and are free to move, its most likely going to be..
..a Liquid
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If the force between particles doesnt exist and are free to move, its most likely going to be..
..a Gas
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What is Volatility?
A measure of how easily a liquid evaporates
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A Solution is a..
..Mixture of a solute and a solvent that doesn't seperate out
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A Solute is the..
..substance being dissolved
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A Solvent is the..
..Liquid which the Solute is dissolving in
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Soluble means..
..it will dissolve
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Insoluble means..
..it will NOT dissolve
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What is Solubility?
A measure of how much will dissolve
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Why doesn't Nail Varnish dissolve in water?
Nail varnish molecules are strongly attached to eachother. Water molecules are strongly attached to eachother. They are more attracted to themselves than eachother.
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Why does Nail Varnish dissolve in Acetone (Propanone)?
The attraction between the molecules are stronger than those holding the two substances together
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What three parts make up a paint?
A solvent; Binding Medium; Pigment
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What is a Pigment?
It gives paint its colour
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What is a Binding medium?
A liquid that carries the pigment and holds them together. When it is solid it sticks the pigments to the surface you've painted
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In paint, what does the Solvent do?
It thins the paint and makes it easier to spread
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What is a Colloid?
A colloid consists of really small particles of one kinds of substance dispersed into another. They're mixed, NOT dissolved
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What happens when Water-based paints dry?
Water evaporates leaving behind the binder and pigment as a thin layer
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What happens when Oil-based paints dry?
The solvent evaporates, then the oil oxidises in the air before it turning solid
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Thermochromic pigments..
..change colour or become transparent when heated or cooled
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Phosphorescent pigments..
..absorb light and store the energy, which is then given off over time (glow in the dark!)
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Plastics are..
..long chain molecules called Polymers.
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What are polymers usually made up of?
Carbon atoms
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Polymerisation is when..
..lots of small Monomers join together to produce a Polymer
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Addition Polymers are made from..
..Unsaturated Monomers which have at least one double covalent bond
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Addition Polymerisation is when..
..Lots of unsaturated monomer molecules open up their double bond to form polymer chains
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In polymers, weak forces between molecules mean it..
..can be stretched easily and will have a low melting point
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In polymers, strong forces between molecules mean it..
..probably has some covalent bonds and is very rigid and cant be stretched; also it will have a high melting point
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Why is GORE-TEX good?
It has all the useful properties of nylon/polyurethane, as well as being breathable
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Define the term 'Biodegradable'
They're aren't broken down by micro-organisms, so they dont rot. This is useful until you need to get rid of it
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A Hydrocarbon is a compound made from..
..Hydrogen and Carbon atoms only
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What is an Alkane?
Alkanes are hydrocarbons which have just single bonds.
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What is an Alkene?
Alkenes are hydrocarbons which have at least one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
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What Colour does Bromine Water turn when an Alkane is added?
It stays orange
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What Colour does Bromine Water turn when an Alkene is added?
It turns from orange to colourless
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In fractional distillation, the small chain of hydrocarbons..
..rise to the top fraction because they have a low boiling boint and are less dense
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In fractional distitillation, the long chain of hydrocarbons..
..fall to the bottom fraction because they have a high boiling point and are more dense
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In fractional distillation, name the output substances from top to bottom.
LPG; Petrol; Naptha; Paraffin; Diesel; Oil; Bitumen
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The two different types of Bond in Crude oil are..
..the strong covalent bonds between the carbons and hydrogens with each hydrocarbon molecule; the other is the intermolecular forces of attraction between different hydrocarbon molecules in the mixture
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What is Cracking?
Cracking is turning long alkane molecules into smaller alkane and alkene molecules (which are more useful)
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What conditions are needed for Cracking?
A temperature of about 400°C - 700°C; along with a catalyst to speed up the reaction
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Why is Cracking so useful?
To match supply and demand which the public needs
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What is to be taken into consideration when choosing a fuel?
Energy Value; Availability; Storage; Cost; Toxicity; Ease of Use; Pollution
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In Complete Combustion, Hydrocarbon + Oxygen ->
Carbon Dioxide + Water (+energy)
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In Incomplete Combustion, Hydrocarbon + Oxygen ->
Carbon Dioxide + Water + Carbon Monoxide + Carbon (+energy)
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Why is Carbon Monoxide dangerous?
It is colourless, odorless, and poisonous.
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In the evolution of the Atmosphere, describe Phase 1.
Volcanoes erupting released gases from inside the Earth, releasing Carbon Dioxide, steam and Ammonia. Water vapour later condensed to form the oceans, with little oxygen.
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In the evolution of the Atmosphere, describe Phase 2.
Carbon Dioxide dissolved into the oceans; Plants evolved, removing Carbon Dioxide and releasing Oxygen; Carbon Dioxide locked away into fossil fuels and sedimentary rock; Nitrogen was released because Ammonia was reacting with Oxygen
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In the evolution of the Atmosphere, describe Phase 3.
Oxygen built up killing early organisms; evolution of more complex organisms; Oxygen formed to create the Ozone layer, which blocks UVs, allowing even more complex organisms to evolve
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In the Carbon cycle, what adds to the Carbon level?
Respiration; Combustion; Decay
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In the Carbon cycle, what lowers the Carbon level?
Photosynthesis
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What substances cause Acid Rain?
Sulfur Dioxide and Oxides of Nitrogen
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What are the two main causes of Acid Rain?
Power Stations and Combustion of fossil fuels
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Why is Acid Rain bad?
It can kill organisms and trees, as well as corrode away stone statues and buildings
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What can Oxides of Nitrogen cause?
Photochemical Smog - a type of pollution that combines with Oxygen to create Ozone, which can cause breathing difficulties (at ground level)
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What is bad about Incomplete Combustion?
It gives off Carbon Monoxide (a poisonous gas), as well as releasing sooty marks
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What charge does a Neutron have?

Back

Neutral

Card 3

Front

What charge does an Electron have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Formula for Carbon Dioxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the Formula for Carbon Monoxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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