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What charge does a nucleus have?
Positive charge
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How does an atom form bonds to make molecules and compounds?
An atom looses or gains electrons to create a bond
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How is an ionic bond formed?
A negative ion is attracted to a positive ion and joins together
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What is the formula for Sodium Carbonate?
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What is the formula for Sulfuric acid?
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What are the four kinds of food additives?
Food colours, Flavour enhancers, Antioxidants and Emulsifiers.
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2 examples of an emulsifier
Mayonnaise and ice cream
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How does an emulsifier stop oil and water molecules from separating out?
When you shake oil and water together with a bit of emulsifier, the emulsifier coats the oil droplets, with the hydrophobic end attached to the oil and the hydrophilic facing outwards. The hyrdophillic end repels the other oil droplets.
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How does cooking eggs and meat create an irreversible change?
When heated, the protein molecules change shape. The energy from cooking breaks some of the chemical bonds in the protein and this allows the molecule to take a different shape. The substance has been denatured, so it's irreversible.
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How does cooking potatoes create an irreversible change?
Potatoes are surrounded by a cell wall of cellulose. Humans can't digest cellulose, cooking ruptures the cells walls. It also makes the starch grains swell up and spread out, making the potato softer and easier to eat
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What chemical change happens when you heat baking powder?
Thermal Decomposition
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Whats chemical does baking powder contain?
Sodium Hydrogencarbonate
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What is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of baking powder?
Sodium hydrogencarbonate> Sodium carbonate+ Carbon dioxide+water
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What is the symbol equation for the thermal decomposition of baking powder?
2NaHCO3> Na2CO3+ CO2+ H20
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What does baking powder do in cakes?
Produce carbon dioxide to make the cakes rise
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How do you make an ester?
By heating a carboxylic acid with an alcohol
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What is the word equation for esterification?
Acid+ Alcohol> Ester+ Water
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What are the 5 properties a perfume needs?
Easily evaporates, Non-toxic, Doesn't react with water, Doesn't irritate the skin and Insoluble in water
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A reason for and against testing on animals
1) Some think it's worth testing on animals first to ensure the won't damage humans 2)Some think it's wrong to cause suffering to animals, especially when the result might be inconclusive.
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Whats causes solids to expand when they are heated?
When the particles are heated the vibrate more
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What are the forces between particles in a solid?
There are a strong force of attraction between particles
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What are the forces between particles in a gas and how do they move?
There is now force of attraction between the particles- they're free to move. They travel in straight lines and only interact when they collide.
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What is volatility?
How easy a liquid evaporates
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Why do substances evaporate?
Some particles move faster than others. fast-moving particles at the surface will overcome the forces of attraction from the other particles and escape.
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What is a solution?
A mixture of a solvent and a solute that does not separate out.
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Why doesn't nail varnish dissolve in water?
Nail varnish and water are more attracted to themselves than each other so they don't mix and form a solution
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Why does nail varnish dissolve in acetone?
The attraction between the nail varnish molecules and the acetone molecules is stronger than the attractions holding the substances together
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What does paint contain? (3)
Solvent, binding medium and pigment
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What is a colloid?
Very small particles of something is dispersed into something else. E.g For paint, particles of pigment are dispersed in a liquid.
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What do thermochromic pigments do?
The change colour or become transparent when heated or cooled
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Uses of thermochromic pigments (5)
Basic thermometers,electric kettles, baby baths, baby spoons, mugs and mood rings
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What do phosporescent pigments do?
The absorb light and store the energy to glow in the dark
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What are polymers?
Plastic long-chain molecules
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How are polymers formed?
When lots of small molecules (usually alkenes) called monomers join together
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What does saturated mean?
Single bonds
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Whats is addition polymerisation?
Lots of unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes) open up their double bonds and join together to make polymer chains. E.g Ethene with pressure and a catalyst becomes polyethene
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Whats are the bond like in plastics?
Strong covalent bonds hold the atoms together in polymer chains
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If the plastic is made up of long chains with weak inter molecular forces than what are the properties?
The chains are free to slide over each other so the plastic can be stretched easily and will have a low metling-point
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If the plastic has strong covalent bonds between the chains or cross-linking bridges than what are its properties?
The plastic will have a high melting-point, will be rigid and can't be stretched because the cross links hold the chains firmly together
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What is high-density polyethene used for?
Plastic milk bottles because it is stiff and rigid.
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What is low-density polyethene used for?
Plastic bags and squeezy bottles because it is light and stretchable
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of nylon with polyurethane
Nylon that is coated with polyurethane is tough, hardwearing, waterproof and doesnt let UV light in. However it is not breatable.
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What is good about GORE-TEX?
Water vapour, for example sweat, can escape.
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How is GORE-TEX made?
By laminating a thin film of expanded PTFE onto a layer of another fabric like nylon.
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What is the problem with disposing most polymers?
They are not 'Biodegradable'
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What are the 2 problems with disposing polymers?
1) Burying them in landfill sites, waste land and plastic 2) When plastics are burnt, some of them release gases like acidic sulfur dioxide or poisonous hydrogen chloride
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What is the best thing to do with polymers?
Reuse or recycle them
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2 examples of hydrocarbons
Petrol and diesel
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What is the formula for alkanes?
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What is the formula for Propane?
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What kind of bonds hold all the atoms together in hydrocarbons?
Covalent bonds
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How do covalent bonds form?
By sharing electrons
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How can you tell the difference between an alkane and an alkene?
Add bromine water. An alkane won't decolourise the bromine water
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Why won't alkanes form polymers?
Because alkanes have no double bonds to open up
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What is crude oil formed from?
Buried plants and animals
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How are different compounds seperated in crude oil?
By fractional distillation
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Why is there a temperature gradient in a fractioning column?
Because the hydrocarbons have different boiling points, so the shorter polymer chains evaporate then turn to liquid at the top of the column
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AS the size of a hydrocarbon increases, what properties change?
The boiling point increases, it becomes less flammable, less viscous and less volatile
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How does an atom form bonds to make molecules and compounds?


An atom looses or gains electrons to create a bond

Card 3


How is an ionic bond formed?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the formula for Sodium Carbonate?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the formula for Sulfuric acid?


Preview of the front of card 5
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