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Why are fossil fuels finite resources?
They are no longer being made, or being made very slowly
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What's a non renewable resource?
When the resource is being used up faster than it's being made
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Name 2 difficulties associated with crude oil being a finite resource?
All the readily extractable resources will be used up in the future, we will have to find replacements
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What is crude oil a mixture of?
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What's a hydrocarbon?
A molecule made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
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Where is the hottest part of a fractional distillation column?
The bottom
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Why can crude oil be separated?
Because they hydrocarbons have differently sized molecules and all the fractions have different boiling points
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Name a fraction with a low boiling point, and where it exits?
LPG, the top of the column
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Name a large molecule in fractional distillation?
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Why does bitumen have a high boiling point?
Because the molecule has strong forces of attraction, a lot of energy is needed to break the intermolecular forces
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Name a small molecule and why it has a low boiling point?
Petrol, the attractive forces between the bonds are weak meaning they can be separated easily, less energy is needed to break the forces
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What problems can oil cause to the environment?
Oil slicks, can damage bird feathers and cause death, clean up operations uses detergents that can damage wildlife
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What are some political problems with crude oil?
Unstable countries that produce oil can set high prices and causing problems for countries like the U.K who are dependent on on oil form these countries
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What is cracking?
A process that turns large alkane molecules into small alkene and alkane molecules
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Why are alkenes useful and what are they used for?
They contain a double bond which means they can be used for making polymers
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What is the word equation for complete combustion?
Methane +oxygen-->carbon dioxide and water
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Why is complete combustion better than incomplete combustion better?
More energy is released, carbon monoxide and carbon is produced during incomplete combustion
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What's the balanced symbol equation for complete combustion?
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O
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What's the balanced symbol equation for incomplete combustion?
CH4 + O2 → C + 2H2O
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What's the word equation for incomplete combustion?
Fuel +oxygen --> carbon monoxide + oxygen
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What is clean air made up of? (Percentages)
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.035% carbon dioxide
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Why do these percentages change very little?
There is a blance between the processes that taken in and give out carbon dioxide and oxygen
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Why has levels of carbon dioxide increased in the past few years?
Deforestation and an increased population
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How was the original atmosphere created?
Gases come from the centre of the earth through volcanoes, this is called degassing
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What was one theory about how the atmosphere was created?
The atmosphere was rich in water vapour and CO2,, the vapour condensed to form oceans the CO2 was dissolved in the water, nitrogen increased.
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What does the percentage of nitrogen stay the same?
Nitrogen is very un reactive, so little is removed from the air
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In the development of the atmosphere what happened why organisms that photosynthesised evolved?
Percentage of oxygen increase and carbon dioxide levels decreased until today
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What does sulfur dioxide do?
Causes difficulties for people with asthma, can also dissolve in water=acid rain which damages limestone buildings and wildlife
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What does a catalytic converter do?
Changes carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide
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In a catalytic converter what reaction takes place, and where?
A reaction between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, takes place on the surface of the catalyst
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What products are formed from the catalytic converter reaction?
Carbon dioxide and nitrogen
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What's the balanced symbol equation for the catalytic converter reaction?
2CO + 2NO → 2CO2 + N2
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What's the difference between a alkane and alkene?
Alkanes have single covalent bonds, Alkenes have double covalent bonds
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What's the symbol for propane and propene?
Propane:C3H8 Propene:C3H6
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What is propene as well as an alkane?
A monomer
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What's the test for an alkene?
When orange bromine water is added to an alekne it decolourises
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What compund is formed after the test for an alkene?
Dibromo compound
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What's a saturated compound, what's an unsaturated compound?
A saturated compound has only single covalent bonds, an unsaturated compound has at least one double bond
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What conditions does polymerisation need?
High pressure and a catalyst
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What's the polymer of propene?
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What happens during addition polymerisation?
A long chain is made, the long molecules made is poly(ethene)
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What does addition polymerisation cause?
It causes the double bond in the monomer to break and each of the two carbon atoms to form new bonds
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What does addition polymerisation involve?
The reaction of many unsaturated monomer molecules(alkenes) to form a saturated polymer(no double bonds)
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Name some properties of nylon?
Lightweight, tough, waterproof, keeps UV light out, doesn't let water vapour through
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What's special about GORE-TEX?
It has all the properties of nylon but it's also breathable.
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What does breathable mean?
Water vapour from sweat can pass through the rain but membrane cannot
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What is GORE-TEX made from?
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How is PTFE breathable?
THe holes in PTFE are too small for water to pass through but big enough for water vapour to pass through
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What are the new types of polymers being developed?
Biodegradable ones, polymers that dissolve
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Name some economic and environmental issues with polymers?
Polymers that aren't biodegradable fill landfill quickly,landfill means wasting land that can be used for better purposes,burning plastic produces toxic gases, difficult to sort out different polymers so recycling is hard
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What are atoms held together by in polymers?
Covalent bonds
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Why can some plastics slide over each other?
They have weak intermolecular forces between molecules so the melting point is low, meaning they can be stretched easily
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Why are some plastics ridged?
Because they have strong forces between corss links or covalent bonds, this means they have high melting points and cannot be stretched
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What happens when food is cooked and what's this process called?
The food changes shape, this is called denaturing
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Why does the texture of egg or meat change when cooked?
Because the shapes of the protein molecules have changed shape permanently
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Why is potato easier to digest when cooked?
The starch grains swell and spread out, the cell walls rupture meaning they lose their rigid structure=softer texture
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What is baking powder?
Sodium hydrogencarbonate
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What happens when sodium hydrogencarbonate is heated?
It decomposes to give off carbon dioxide
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What's the word equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate?
Sodium hydrogencarbonate+sodium carbonate-->carbon dioxide + water
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What's the balanced symbol equation for the decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate?
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What's an emulsifier?
A molecules that has a water loving part(hydrophilic) and an oil-fat loving part(hydrophobic) part
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What do emulsifiers do?
Help to keep oil and water from separating
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How do emulsifiers stop fat and water separating?
The hydrophilic end bonds to the water molecules,the hydrophobic end bond to the oil or fat molecules, the hydrophilic end is attracted to the water which is surrounded by the oil keeping them together
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What's the word equation to make an ester?
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How is an ester made using an experiment?
The acid is added to the alcohol and heated for some time, the condenser stops the gas from escaping and cools it down so it can react more, the condenser allows the reaction to go on for longer
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Name a few properties perfumes should have?
Evaporate easily so perfume particles can reach the nose, be non-toxic,not react with water e.g.perspiration, insoluble in water, non irritable
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What's a solvent?
A mixture of a solute and solvent that doesn't separate
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In order to evaporate what do particles need to do?
The particles of a liquid need sufficient kinetic energy to overcome forces of attraction to other molecules in the liquid
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What is the attraction like in perfume and why?
They are weak so they can be eaily overcome as they have suffiecnt kinetic energy, perfumes have to be able to evaporate so the particle can reach the nose
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Why will water not dissolve nail varnish?
The attraction between the water molecules is stronger than the attraction between the water and the nail varnish molecules and the attraction between the nail varnish molecules is stronger than the attraction between nail varnish and water
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Paint is a colloid what does this mean?
The particles are mixed and dispersed with particles of a liquid(binding medium)but are not dissolved
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Why wont the components of a colloid seperate?
The particles are dispersed throughout the mixture and they are sufficiently small so wont sink to the bottom
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Why do paints dry?
They are applied in a thin layer and the solvent evaporates
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How do emulsion paints dry?
They are water paints that dry when the solvent evaporates
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How do oil paints dry?
The solvent evaporates, the oil is oxidised by atmospheric oxygen
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What's a thermochromic pigment?
They change colour at different temperatures
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Give a use for a thermochromic pigment?
In electric kettle to keep users safe when boiling water,baby spoons and bath toys
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What can be done to enhance thermochromic pigments?
They can be added to acrylic paints to make even more colour changes
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How do phosphorescent pigments glow in the dark?
They absorb and store energy, they release as light over a period of time
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What used to be used as a glow in dark pigment but was unsafe?
Radioactive paints
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What's a non renewable resource?


When the resource is being used up faster than it's being made

Card 3


Name 2 difficulties associated with crude oil being a finite resource?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is crude oil a mixture of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What's a hydrocarbon?


Preview of the front of card 5
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