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  • Created by: robyn16
  • Created on: 17-01-14 16:52
How do you balance a symbol equation?
add numbers infront of the compounds until they are equal in numbers
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What is the use of emulsifiers?
helps oil and water blend together in foods like mayonnaise
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What is hydrophilic?
LIKES WATER- the end bonds to a water molecule
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What is hydrophobic?
HATES WATER- the end bonds to an oil molecule
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Is a chemical change reversible or irreversible?
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What do protein molecules do when heated?
They change shape by breaking the chemical bonds- denaturing
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What is thermal decompostition?
is when a substance BREAKS DOWN into a simpler substance when HEATED
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How can carbon dioxide be detected?
By doing the test where you put carbon dioxide into a test tube of lime water and then it turns cloudy if it's present
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What is a solution?
a mixture of a solvent and solute
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Why doesn't nail varnish dissolve in water?
the molecules are too strongly attatched to each other. This is then stronger than the water molecules which is why it wouldn't dissolve
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Why does nail varnish dissolve in acetone?
because the water molecules are strongly attatched to each other. This attraction is stronger than the attraction between the water and nail varnish.
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What are the three main things in paint?
Pigment, binding medium and a solvent
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What is pigment?
Pigment is the something that gives the paint it's colour
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What is binding medium?
the liquid that carries the pigment and holds it all together. When solid, it sticks to the surface.
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What is a solvent?
The stuff that thins out the paint
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What is a colloid?
really tiny particles of stuff dispersed in with another kind of stuff
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How do water based paints dry?
the solvent evaporates, leaving the pigment and the binding medium behind then sticks to the surface. Dries quickly and isn't harmful
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How do oil based paints dry?
2 stages-1) the solvent evaporates 2) then the oil is oxidised by the oxygen in the air before it turns solid.
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What are thermocromic pigments?
thermocromic pigments change colour when heated
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Name 3 uses of thermochromic pigments.
in baby products to test the temperature e.g bath toys or cups Drink mugs- to tell if it's hot or cold Kettles- changes colour when boiled
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What do phosphorescent pigments do?
they absorb natural or artificial light, store it, then release it as light over a long period of time
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Uses of phosphorescent pigment.
watch or a clock with glow in the dark hands- not safe.
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How do polymers form?
lots of small monomers joing together
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What is the reaction called?
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Why are some monomers called unsaturated?
because they have at least one double covalent bond
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What is a displayed formula?
(man with long ears and remember the n!)
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Describe a weak force in plastics.
If it is made up of long chains that are held together with WEAK intermolecular forces they slide over each other which the plastic is stretched easily and has a low melting point.
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Descibe strong forces in plastics.
As these have a double covalent bond they cross-link. These have higher melting points, are rigid and CANNOT be stretched. The crosslinks hold them firmly together
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What polymers are used for plastic milk bottles?
stong and rigid ones
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Nylon is a synthetic polymer. What is it used for?
Making clothes- isn't breatheable
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What does PTFE films do?
they have tiny holes which let water vapour out but doesn't let liquid in
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What problems can occur from non-biodegradable plastics?
cause landfill sights to get bigger, when they are burnt it releases sulfur dioxide and poisious gases
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What is biodegradable?
means that it hasn't been broken down my microorganisms- don't rot.
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Do alkanes have a single or double bond?
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Why are alkanes saturated?
because they don't have a double covalent bond
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How can you tell if a substance is an alkane or an alkene?
by adding the substance to bromine water- if alkane the solution WONT decolourise
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Why are alkenes unsaturated?
because they contain at least one double covalent bond
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Why are alkenes more reactive?
because their double bonds can open up to join with another alkene
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What is the point of fractional distilation?
to seperate crude oil into more useful fuels
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How is crude oil formed?
it is made from the remains of plants and animals of many tears- fossil fuels
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What is fractional distilation?
when the fossil fuel (oil) is heated, the hydrocarbons then seperate out into the different coloums
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What fuel is the only liquid and gets drained out the bottom?
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Where do the shorter hydrocarbons exit?
at the top as they have lower boiling points they turn to liquid alot later on in the column
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Where do the longer hydrocarbon exit? why?
at the top as they have a higher boiling point and it takes longer for the covalent bonds to snap open.
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From the top, name the fuels that exit top to bottom.
LPG, petrol, naphtha, paraffin, diesel, oil, bitumen
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what happens to the boiling point of a hydrocarbon molecule when the size increases?
it increases
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When crude oil is heated what happens to the energy?
they gain extra energy (they multiply)
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Smaller hydrocarbon molecules have varied intermolecular forces, is it stronger or weaker? why?
weaker- because the bonds have less to attach to
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What holds the hydrocarbon molecules togther?
double covalent bonds
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What is cracking?
splitting the longer alkane molecules into smaller alkene and alkane molecules
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What are the two things you need in a cracking chamber?
catalyst and heat
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Why do we use cracking?
to make the hydrocarbons more useful
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What is the difference between alkane and alkene?
Alkane- has the single bond Alkene- has a double covalent bond alkEnE- double E- double bond
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What is complete combustion?
there is enough oxygen to create non poisonous products
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What is incomplete combustion?
when there is not enogh oxygen to be safe, therefore carbon monoxide is produced
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What is the symbol equation for complete combustion?
CH4 + 2O2 ---> 2H2O + CO2 (+ energy)
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Why is carbon monoxide production a bad thing?
because it is colourless, oderless and poisonous gas
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What is produced when fossil fuels are burnt? why is this bad?
carbon dioxide- carbon dioxide is a casue of global warming
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Fossil fuels release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, what does this produce?
Acid rain
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How do we reduce traffic pollution?
catalytic converter
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the use of emulsifiers?


helps oil and water blend together in foods like mayonnaise

Card 3


What is hydrophilic?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is hydrophobic?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Is a chemical change reversible or irreversible?


Preview of the front of card 5
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