C13, The Earth's Atmosphere.

  • Created by: cieran_10
  • Created on: 28-09-18 20:00
When do scientists believe that the earth was created?
Around 4.6 billion years ago.
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Why is it that there are numerous theories about the origins of the universe?
As there is very little evidence from billions of years ago.
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What is the volcanic theory?
That the earth used to be covered in volcanoes and that in the first billion years these spurted out gases, which formed the earth's early atmosphere.
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What gas is believed to have mainly made up the earth's early atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide.
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What four gases- apart from carbon dioxide- also probably made up the atmosphere?
Water vapour, nitrogen gas, traces of methane and traces ammonia.
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What gas, which is quite abundant now, was most probably limited or non-existent in the earth's early atmosphere?
Oxygen.
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What two planets does the earth's early atmosphere most probably resemble?
Mars and Venus.
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What happened to the water vapour as the earth cooled down?
It condensed to form the oceans.
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How many years ago do scientists believe life started?
3.4 billions years ago.
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How many years ago do scientists think that algae evolved?
2.7 billion years ago.
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How did algae and plants evolving on earth begin to get rid of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere? What did this also do?
By using it (along with energy from sunlight) to photosynthesise. This also released oxygen into the surroundings.
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What is the current percentage of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere?
0.04%.
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How did the oceans help to reduce the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
As carbon dioxide dissolves in water.
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What does carbon dioxide do when it dissolves in water?
It turns into an insoluble carbonate compound.
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What do insoluble carbonate compounds do when in water?
They precipitate onto the seabed as sediments.
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Over millions of years, what became covered with layers of sediment on the seabed.?
Animal remains.
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How are sedimentary carbonate rocks formed?
When animal remains become compressed (by sediments) on the seabed.
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Give an example of a sedimentary carbonate rock. What does this mainly contain and what two things is it formed from?
Limestone, which is mainly made up of calcium carbonate and is formed by the shells and skeletons of marine organisms.
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What three fossil fuels are formed from plant and animal remains?
Coal, natural gas and oil.
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What type of rock is coal?
Sedimentary.
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What is coal formed from?
Thick plant deposits.
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How have plants formed coal?
As the plant material has been buried and then compressed over millions of years, meaning that the lack of oxygen and compression has lead to it forming.
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What is oil and natural gas formed from?
Remains of plankton.
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What has turned the remains of plankton into natural gas and oil?
The mud being deposited on the seabed, which has then been compressed by layers of rock over millions of years.
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Why is it that crude oil and natural gas are trapped between layers of rock?
As this is where they have been formed.
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What gas, which is abundant in todays atmosphere, was spurted from volcanoes to form the early atmosphere?
Nitrogen gas.
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What two other gases were spurted form volcanoes, but only traces of these were?
Mathane and ammonia.
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How was methane and ammonia removed from the earth's early atmosphere? What two products did this reaction produce
By reacting with the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. This produces carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
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Why is it that nitrogen levels built up to the level that it is at now?
An it is an inert gas.
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Over the last how many years have the proportions of gases in the earth's atmosphere NOT changed?
200 million years.
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What is the percentage of nitrogen in today's atmosphere?
80%.
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What is the percentage of oxygen in today's atmosphere?
20%.
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What three gases make up around 1% of todays atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide, water vapour and noble gases.
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What do greenhouse gases do to the earth's global air temperature?
Sustains it at a temperature good for life.
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Name the three main greenhouse gases of today's atmosphere?
Water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide.
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How do greenhouse gases let warmth (from the sun) onto the earth's surface?
By letting the short-wavelength UV rays through the atmosphere.
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How does the earth's surface cool down?
By emitting longer-wavelength infrared radiation.
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What type of radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases?
Infrared radiation.
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When greenhouse gases absorb radiation, what happens to the energy radiated by the earth's surface?
It becomes trapped in the earth's atmosphere, causing the temperature of the earth to rise.
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Complete the sentence: the higher the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the more energy.....
Absorbed.
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Over the past how many years has the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere increased?
The past 100 years.
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What is the main reason for the concentration of carbon dioxide rising in the earth's atmosphere?
The burning of fossil fuels.
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Why does deforestation contribute to global warming?
As it reduces the photosynthesis performed by trees and leaves, meaning more CO2 remains in the atmosphere.
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How is the solubility of carbon dioxide in water affected by temperature? What does this do to the oceans and why?
The higher the temperature, the less soluble it becomes. This makes the oceans less effective, as carbon dioxide sinks.
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What two factors contribute to the higher concentration of methane in the atmosphere?
More animal farming (leading to more emissions and decomposing animal waste) and more waste leads to more decomposition of rubbish in landfill sites.
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Do scientsts agree or disagree that there is a trend in global warming now?
Disagree.
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What are the views of scientists based on (in terms of gobal warming?)
Scientists journals.
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How can other scientsts rely on the scientific journals of other scientists?
As they are peer reviewed.
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What are scientists searching for to link the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the climate?
More evidence.
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Why is it hard to detect the effects of global climate change?
Due to it being difficult to model global climate change, even with computers.
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Will the opinions/simplified models on part of the climate change evidence be neutral?
No, biased
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What is the major cause of slimate change?
Global warming.
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What are rising sea levels caused by?
Melting ice caps and glaciers.
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What is an effect of rising sea levels? (2.)
Flooding and increased coastal erosion.
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What causes more fequent and severe storms?
More greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
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What is the cause of rising global air temperatures and changes to the distribution of rainfall?
Rising levels of greenhouse gases.
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How does rising greenhouse gases affect food?
As it impacts on the food-producing capacity of other countries.
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How can some species become extinct due to rising levels of greenhouse gases?
As there will be changes to the distribution of wildlife species.
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What is a carbon footprint?
It is the total amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that a product, service or event emits over its full lifecycle.
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How can energy supplies reduce carbon footprints?
By people using alternative energy supplies.
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Give an example of conserving energy.
Improving home insulation.
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What are biofuels?
They are fuels made from plant material.
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How are biofuels carbon neutral?
As plants absorb carbon dioxide during photosynthesis, meaning this is returned to the atmosphere when it is burnt.
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What are carbon taxes?
Taxing fossil fuels by taxing cars that burn a lot of fuel.
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How can carbon taxes be offset?
By planting trees.
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During the processing of materials, how can companies be encouraged to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions?
Offsetting carbon taxes, which is an incentive for these big businesses.
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What is carbon capture and storage?
When carbon dioxide, which is produced in fossil fuel power stations, is pumped deep underground and then absorbed by porous rocks.
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Why do many businesses not like carbon capture and storage?
As it increases the price of the production of energy by 10%
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Why can plant based diets reduce a person's carbon footprint? Give two reasons.
As farmers can grow more crops and vegetables (absorbing more carbon dioxide) and fewer cattle will produce methane.
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Complete the sentence: _____________________ __________________ stops people from reducing their carbon footprint, due to them disagreeing over the causes and consequences of global climate change?
Scientific agreement.
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In terms of global targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, what stops reducing carbon footprints?
Incomplete international co-operation.
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What two industries are reluctant to reduce their carbon footprints?
Manufacturing and transport industries.
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What could restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions do to poorer countries?
Hinder their developing industries.
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Name three lifestyle changes that could be made by the public if they were educated better on global climate change?
Begin to walk, cycle and recycle in their everyday life.
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What happens to hydrocarbons when they are combusted?
They are oxidised not carbon dioxide and water.
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What can be done to fuels to make them more efficient?
Substances can be added to them.
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Can fuels burn differently to usually?
Yes.
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What three things can incomplete combustion produce?
Carbon monoxide, some unburnt hydrocarbons and particulates containing soot (carbon.)
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Name a toxic gas produced by incomplete combustion.
Carbon monoxide.
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Give two reasons why you can't tell that carbon monoxide is there?
As it is odourless and colourless gas.
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Why is carbon monoxide toxic?
As it combines to the heamoglobin in the blood instead of the oxygen.
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What climate change issue is caused by particulates? Why?
Global dimming. As they prevent some sunlight from reaching the earth' surface.
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What is a medical implication of solid particulates?
Respiratory diseases.
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What do most fossil fuels contain, which is related to acid rain?
Sulfur compounds.
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What happens to sulfur containing fuels when they are burnt?
They form sulfur dioxide.
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What is sulfur dioxide linked to, in terms of climate change?
Acid rain.
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Why can nitrogen oxide be formed from the combustion of fuels?
As the engine is hot enough to break the triple nitrogen bond, to then form a new bond between nitrogen and oxygen (in the air), to form nitrogen dioxide.
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What two gases lead to acid rain and respiratory problems?
Nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide.
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Give four affects of acid rain.
Damage to trees, killing plants and animals in lakes, damage to limestone buildings and damage to metal structures.
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Why is it that there are numerous theories about the origins of the universe?

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As there is very little evidence from billions of years ago.

Card 3

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What is the volcanic theory?

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Card 4

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What gas is believed to have mainly made up the earth's early atmosphere?

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Card 5

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What four gases- apart from carbon dioxide- also probably made up the atmosphere?

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