C1 Topic 5: Fuels

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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of different sized hydrocarbons
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What does fractional distillation do?
Separates the hydrocarbons in crude oil by using heat as they have different boiling points
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What is fuel gas used for?
Cooking/heating
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What is petrol used for?
Cars
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What is Naptha used for?
Lighter fluid
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What is Kerosene used for?
Jet fuel
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What is diesel used for?
Lorries/buses
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What is fuel oil used for?
Ships/power stations
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What is bitumen used for?
Surface roads/roofs
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As you go up the crude oils, how does the boiling point change?
The boiling point decreases
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What are the properties of crude oil the lower you go down the crude oils?
Not so flammable; high viscosity; long hydrocarbons
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What are the properties the higher you go down the crude oils?
Short hydrocarbons; low viscosity; highly flammable
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What is complete combustion?
When hydrocarbons burn with a sufficient amount of oxygen
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What is the equation for complete combustion?
Hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + Water
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What is incomplete combustion?
When hydrocarbons burn without a suffient amount of oxygen?
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What is the equation for incomplete combustion?
Hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon monoxide + carbon + water
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What is carbon released as?
Soot
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What is carbon monoxide?
A poisonous gas which reduces the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen.
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True or false: carbon monoxide can lead to death
True
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What should be considered when you choose a fuel?
How is it it to ignite? How much energy is released? How clean is it? How easy is it to transport?
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What does sulphur dioxide (SO2) cause?
Acid rain
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What does carbon dioxide (CO2) produce?
Global warming
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To remove sulfur from fuel, what should be done?
Iron seeding
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What are the benefits of iron seeding?
Produces more plankton and produces less CO2
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What is biogas made from?
Microorganisms and decomposing dead plants/animals
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What is alcohol made from?
Sugar beet
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Because the sugar beet uses a lot of land, what could the land be used for instead?
Crops
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What are alkanes?
Saturated hydrocarbons which are single bonded
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What are the three different alkanes which should be known?
Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6) and propane (C3H8)
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What is the equation to find the number of carbon and hydrogen in different alkanes?
Cn H2n + 2
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What is polymerisation?
The method of changing short hydrocarbons to long hydrocarbons
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What are alkenes?
Unsaturated hydrocarbons which are double bonded
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What are the two different alkenes which should be known?
Propene (C3H6) and ethene (C2H4)
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What is cracking?
Thermal decomposition which changes long hydrocarbons to short hydrocarbons
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Why are long hydrocarbons changed to short hydrocarbons?
Short hydrocarbons are more useful
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What is the test for bromine water?
Alkanes keep bromine water brown; alkene turns bromine water colourless
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is crude oil?

Back

A mixture of different sized hydrocarbons

Card 3

Front

What does fractional distillation do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is fuel gas used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is petrol used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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