What does the Nucleus of an Atom contain?
Protons and Neutrons
1 of 159
What charge and mass do Protons have?
Charge - +1 Mass - 1
2 of 159
What charge and mass do Neutrons have?
Charge - 0 Mass - 1
3 of 159
What charge and mass do Electrons have?
Charge - -1 Mass - 0
4 of 159
How do you work out the number of Protons?
Look at the Atomic number (the bottom number)
5 of 159
How do you work out the number of Electrons?
= the number of protons (bottom number)
6 of 159
How do you work out the number of Neutrons?
Take the mass number and subtract the Proton number
7 of 159
Why do Atoms have no charge overall?
The positive Protons and negative Electrons cancel out
8 of 159
What is an Element?
A substance containing only one type of atom
9 of 159
What forms columns in the Periodic table?
Elements with similar properties.
10 of 159
What do all the elements in the same group have in common?
The same number of Electrons in their outer shells
11 of 159
What are the elements in group 0?
The noble gases. They have full outer shells meaning they are stable and unreactive.
12 of 159
How many electrons can the first shell in an atom hold?
13 of 159
How many electrons can the second shell in an atom hold?
14 of 159
What do Atoms always try to get?
A full outer shell. They will try to react to fill those outer shells
15 of 159
How are compounds formed?
Different elements react and the atoms form chemical bonds with the other atoms.
16 of 159
What are Ions?
Charged particles that form when atoms gain or lose electrons
17 of 159
What do we need to make sure of when balancing equations?
That there are the same number of each element on either side of the arrow
18 of 159
What are Isotopes?
Atoms of the same element, with the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of protons
19 of 159
What is Limestone and why do we want it?
It is a Sedimentary rock formed underground. We want it becuase it is a good building material
20 of 159
What are 3 advantages of quarrying?
1. More jobs available 2. Money from the Limestone 3. More developed area, housing, roads etc
21 of 159
What are 4 disadvantages of quarrying?
1. Air/Dust pollution 2. Destroys Habitats 3. Noise 4.Traffic
22 of 159
How do we make Cement?
Powdered Limestone + Clay
23 of 159
How do we make Mortar?
Cement + Sand + Water
24 of 159
How do we make Concrete?
Cement + Sand + Water + Gravel/Aggregate
25 of 159
What is the chemical name for Limestone?
Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
26 of 159
What is the name given to the breaking down of Metal Carbonates with heat?
27 of 159
What is the Word Equation for Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate?
Calcium Carbonate --> Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
28 of 159
What is the Symbol Equation for Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate?
CaCO3 ---> CaO + CO2
29 of 159
What is the general formula for Thermal Decomposition?
Metal Carbonate -Heat--> Metal Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
30 of 159
What is the first reaction in the lime cycle?
Thermal Decomposition of Calcium Carbonate to form Calcium Oxide (and Carbon dioxide)
31 of 159
What is the second reaction in the lime cycle?
Adding water to the Calcium Oxide to form Calcium Hydroxide
32 of 159
What is the third reaction in the lime cycle?
The Calcium Hydroxide is dissolved in water to form a Calcium Hydroxide solution (limewater)
33 of 159
What is the test for Carbon dioxide?
If you bubble gas through Calcium Hydroxide solution (limewater), the solution will turn cloudy if carbon dioxide is present.
34 of 159
What is the fourth reaction in the lime cycle?
Bubble Calcium Hydroxide solution (limewater) through Carbon dioxide to form Calcium Carbonate again
35 of 159
What are the properties of metals?
Hard, Shiny, Ductile, Conducts electricity, Malleable
36 of 159
What is an Ore?
A metal found underground bonded to Oxygen and Rock
37 of 159
Which Metals can be found as pure metals?
Unreactive metals like Gold
38 of 159
Which metals are mined?
Reactive metals such as Copper and Iron
39 of 159
Why do we extract metals?
It is economically viable - It costs less to extract than the profit we make when we sell it
40 of 159
What is the name given to the reaction that extracts metaks from their Ores using Carbon
Reduction with Carbon
41 of 159
What is the general formula for Reduction with Carbon?
Metal Oxide + Carbon ----> Metal + Carbon Dioxide
42 of 159
Which metals can be extracted by Reduction with Carbon?
Only the metals below Carbon in the Reactivity series
43 of 159
What are High grade copper ores and what's happening to them?
They are Ores which contain high amounts of Copper. They are running out
44 of 159
What are the 2 methods of extracting low grade Copper ore?
1. Phytomining 2. Bioleaching
45 of 159
What happens in Phytomining?
Plants absorb Copper ions from the soil and we burn them to make Copper Oxide
46 of 159
What happens in Bioleaching?
Create a Bacteria Solution (leachate) and run over low grade ore. The bacteria will absorb the Copper
47 of 159
What extracts metals using electricity?
48 of 159
Why is Aluminium extracted by Electrolysis?
It is more reactive than Carbon so cannot be extracted by Reduction
49 of 159
What does Electrolysis require to conduct electricity?
Liquid - Metal Salt solutions
50 of 159
How does Electrolysis work?
Electrons are taken away by the positive electrode and given away by the negative electrode. The metal ions gain or lose electrons and the resulting pure atoms bond to the Negative electrode
51 of 159
What happens if you put a reactive metal into a solution of dissolved metal compund and why? What is this reaction called?
The reactive metal will replace the less reactive metal in the compound. This is because the more reactive metal bonds more strongly to the non metal bit of the compund and pushes out the less reactive metal. This is called a displacement reaction
52 of 159
What is the fomula for the displacement reaction of copper sulfate and Iron?
Copper sulfate + Iron ---> Iron sulfate + Copper
53 of 159
What do we use the Blast furnace for?
To reduce Iron ore to Iron
54 of 159
What happens in the Blast Furnace?
1. Iron Ore, flux and coke are put into the top 2. The Oxygen in the air reacts with the coke to form CO2 3. The limestone in the furnace decomposes to form CaO + CO2 4. More CO2 reacts with coke to from CO 4. The CO then reduces the Iron Ore to Iron
55 of 159
What do we use to reduce Iron Oxide in the blast furnace?
56 of 159
What is in the Blast furnace initially which decomposes to form additional CO2?
57 of 159
What is formed at the bottom of the blast furnace?
Very brittle Pig Iron
58 of 159
What is the disadvantage of mining and extracting metals?
It takes a lot of energy, most of which comes from burning fossil fuels
59 of 159
What are the 4 advantages of recycling metals?
1. It only uses a small fraction of the energy needed to mine and extract metals 2.It saves money 3. It conserves resources - there's a finite amount of each metal in the Earth 4. Cuts down the amount sent to landfills which take up space and pollute
60 of 159
What is the structure and properties of pure metals?
The atoms are arranged in layers. They can be easily shaped as the layers can slide over each other
61 of 159
What is the structure and properties of Alloys?
There are different side particles so they are harder because they have distorted layers which cannot slide over each other
62 of 159
What is Crude oil made up of?
63 of 159
What are Hydrocarbons?
Compunds containing Carbon and Hydrogen only
64 of 159
What is an alkane?
A Hydrocarbon with single bonds. Each carbon makes 4 bonds
65 of 159
What is the General Fromula for an alkane?
66 of 159
What does the size of a Hydrocarbon affect?
The boiling point. As the Hydrocarbon gets bigger, the boiling point goes up
67 of 159
What is the property of different boiling points in Hydrocarbons used for?
To separate Crude oil into fractions with similar boiling points
68 of 159
What can we use to separate crude oil?
69 of 159
What happens in Fractional Distillation?
Crude oil enters at the bottom and evaporates. It rises up the chamber which cools as you go up, so they condense at their different boiling points and drop into different fractions. The fractions then come out as different substances such as petrol
70 of 159
What are 3 properties of long chain hydrocarbons?
1. They have high boiling points 2. They don't flow easily 3. They don't ignite easily
71 of 159
What are 3 properties of short chain hydrocarbons?
1.They have low boiling points 2. They flow easily 3. They ignite easily
72 of 159
What comes out near the top of the fractional distillation chamber?
Bottled gases and Petrol
73 of 159
What comes out near the bottom of the fractional distillation chamber?
Diesel, Oil and Bitumen
74 of 159
What products are formed when fuels burn in Oxygen?
Carbon Dioxide and water
75 of 159
What is the general equation for Complete Combustion?
Fuel + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + water
76 of 159
What is Incomplete Combustion?
When there isn't enough Oxygen so Carbon Monoxide is formed instead of Carbon Dioxide
77 of 159
When burning fuels, where does Carbon Dioxide come from and what does it do?
It comes from Complete Combustion and causes Global warming
78 of 159
When burning fuels, where do Particulates come from and what do they do?
They come from burning diesel and cause Global dimming. They reflect sunlight back into space
79 of 159
When burning fuels, where does Sulphur dioxide come from and what does it do?
It comes from sulfur impurities in coal and causes acid rain
80 of 159
When burning fuels, where does Nitrous Oxide come from and what does it do?
It comes from when Hydrocarbon fuels burn at high temperatures and causes Acid rain
81 of 159
What is an Alkene?
A hydrocarbon containing one carbon-carbon double bond (each carbon still makes 4 bonds)
82 of 159
What is the general formula for alkenes?
83 of 159
What is the test for the difference between alkanes and alkenes?
Bromine water. It is orange, but in the presence of an alkene, it decolourises
84 of 159
What is the problem with Fractional Distillation?
We make lots of long chains that aren't very useful - shorter chains ignite easily so are more in demand
85 of 159
What is the solution for the long chains produced in Fractional distillation?
Crack the long chains to form a short chain alkane and an alkene
86 of 159
What is the method for Cracking?
Heat the long chain until it evaporates then pass it over a catalyst (porous pot) to speed up the reaction
87 of 159
What is a monomer?
One substance (usually an alkene)
88 of 159
What is a Polymer?
A long chain of monomers joined
89 of 159
How do we draw polymers?
1. Break the double bond to a single 2. Add 'arms' out of the side 3. Draw brackets through the arms 4. Move the 'n' to the bottom right
90 of 159
What is a disadvantage of polymers?
They aren't biodegradable and it's difficult to get rid of them. If you bury them in a landfill site, they'll still be there years later
91 of 159
What is the best way to dispose of Polymers?
Re-use and recycle them
92 of 159
Why will polymers become dearer?
Crude oil is non renewable and the resources will get used up
93 of 159
What are 3 uses of ethanol?
1. Alcohol 2. Biofuel 3. Sterilisation
94 of 159
What is Ethanol NOT?
A hydrocarbon! (it has oxygen in it)
95 of 159
What are the 2 ways of forming ethanol?
1. Fermentation of Glucose 2. Hydration of Ethene
96 of 159
What is the equation for the fermentation of Glucose?
Glucose --yeast---> Ethanol + CO2
97 of 159
What is the process of Fermentation of Glucose?
Leaving Glucose for a long time to break down into Ethanol
98 of 159
What is used as a Catalyst in Fermentation of Glucose?
99 of 159
What is the equation for the Hydration of Ethene?
Ethene + Steam ---> Ethanol
100 of 159
What are 7 disadvantages of Fermentation of Glucose to produce Ethanol?
1.Batch process 2.Slow 3.Ethanol isn't pure 4.Releases CO2 5.Habitats are destroyed to make room for growing sugar cane 6.Crop Growth is seasonal 7.Takes up land that could be used for food growth
101 of 159
What are 4 disadvantages of Hydration of Ethene to produce Ethanol?
1. Very expensive 2. LEDC's Don't have the machinery 3. Uses lots of energy 4. Ethene is non renewable
102 of 159
What are 3 advantages of Hydration of Ethene to produce Ethanol?
1. Continuous process 2. Fast 3. Ethanol is very pure
103 of 159
What happens in the process of distillation to produce plant oil?
Water eva[porates, passes through the plant and picks up vapours. The water and plant oil condense and then eventually separate
104 of 159
What do Vegetable oils provide and contain?
They provide lots of energy and contain nutrients and essential fatty acids which the body needs for many metabolic processes
105 of 159
What are the positives of oils having higher boiling points than water?
They can cook foods at higher temperatures and at faster speeds
106 of 159
How does using oil to cook foods change the food?
It gives the food a different flavour because of the oil's own flavour and flavours that come from chemicals that are soluble in oil. It also increases their energy
107 of 159
What can Vegetable oils be used as?
Fuels such as biodiesel which has similar properties to ordinary diesel fuel
108 of 159
What are plant oils made up of?
109 of 159
What are Plant oils a mixture of?
Saturated and Unsaturated hydrocarbons
110 of 159
What are unsaturated oils?
Oils with Hydrocarbons that contain some double bonds
111 of 159
The more Unsaturated oils are.....
The more double bonds there are and the healthier they are
112 of 159
What is the test for the unsaturation of pant oilsand how does it show us?
Using bromine water. The more drops decolourised, the more double bonds the oil has
113 of 159
Why are vegetable oils healthier than margarine?
Vegetable oils are unsaturated
114 of 159
What process is used to turn oils into margarines?
115 of 159
What happens in the process of Hydrogenation?
Oils are hardened by reacting them with hydrogen and passing them over a nickel catalyst at a 60°C heat
116 of 159
What are partially hydrogenated oils used in and what do they contain?
Used in processed foods and contain trans fats which are very bad for you
117 of 159
What do Saturated fats increase in the body?
The amount of cholesterol in the blood which can block up the arteries and increase risk of heart disease
118 of 159
Why do we have emulsions?
Because oils don't dissolve in water
119 of 159
What are emulsions?
Stable mixtures of oil and water
120 of 159
When do emulsions form?
When an emulsifier molecule bonds the oil and water together
121 of 159
What do emulsifiers have which cause the emulsion to stick together
A Hydrophilic head which bonds with water and a Hydrophobic tail which bonds with oil
122 of 159
What are 2 advantages of emulsifiers?
1. They stop emulsions from separating out which givesthem a longer shelf - life 2. They allow food that's lower in fat but still has a good texture to be produced
123 of 159
What is a disadvantage of emulsifiers?
Some people are allergic to some e.g Egg yolk
124 of 159
What are the 4 components of the earth's structure?
Inner core, Outer core, Mantle and Crust
125 of 159
What are the properties of the Earth's crust?
It is the top layer and is very thin and surrounded by the atmosphere
126 of 159
What are the properties of the Earth's Mantle?
It has solid properties but flows slowly
127 of 159
What are the inner core and outer core of the Earth made from?
Iron and Nickel
128 of 159
What happens in the Earth's core to produce heat and therefore convection currents?
129 of 159
What is the Earth's crust broken up into?
130 of 159
Why do tectonic plates move?
Because the convection currents in the mantle cause the plates to drift
131 of 159
What did Alfred Wegener notice in fossils and what was the accepted explanation for it?
He found fossils of very similar plants and animals on opposite sides of the atlantic ocean. The accepted explanation was that there has once been land bridges linking the continents - so animals had been able to cross. The briges had sunk since then
132 of 159
What 2 things did Alfred Wegener notice about the continents?
1. That all the continents seemed to match like the pieces of a jigsaw 2. There were matching layers in the rocks in different continents
133 of 159
What was Wegener's Theory?
About 300 million years ago, there had been one supercontinent called Pangea which broke apart into smaller continents which are still slowly drifting apart
134 of 159
What did Wegener think caused continent movement and what was the reaction?
Caused by Tidal forces and the Earth's rotation. Geologists said this was impossible
135 of 159
What 3 reasons meant that Wegener's theory wasn't accepted?
1. He used innacurate data and made wild predictions 2. He wasn't a geologist, he was an astronomer 3. He didn't have any real proof
136 of 159
What were scientists' reactions to wegener's theory?
The reaction was hostile and few scientists supported him
137 of 159
Where and How do Earthquakes occur?
When two plate boundaries collide together. They always occur at the edge of plates
138 of 159
How are the waves produced by an earthquake detected?
Using a seismometer
139 of 159
What is the severity of an Earthquake measured using?
The Richter scale
140 of 159
What are 3 effects of earthquakes?
1. Deaths 2. Destruction of buildings 3. Fires from cracked gas pipes
141 of 159
What are 3 reasons for Earthquakes NOT being reported by the media?
1. Scientists don't know what's happening in the mantle 2. They don't know when, where or how strong the earthquake will be 3. It could cause havoc with people trying to evacuate
142 of 159
What different elements does the Earth's atmosphere contain and what are their percentages?
1. 78% Nitrogen 2. 21% Oxygen 3. Less than 1% of other gases (CO2, H2O and Noble gases such as Argon)
143 of 159
What do we use to separate gases and how?
Fractional distillation of air by cooling to -200°C in stages
144 of 159
What are the 3 stages of Fractional Distillation of air?
1. Water vapour condenses and is removed 2. CO2 solidifies and is removed to avoid blocking machinery 3. Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon condense at their boiling points
145 of 159
What happens to Argon and Oxygen in Fractional distillation of air and why?
They condense together as their boiling points are very similar
146 of 159
How were the Oceans and atmosphere formed?
As the Earth cooled down, the crust formed but volcanoes kept erupting. They gave out lots of gas such as CO2 and water vapour which condensed to form oceans
147 of 159
What was the early atmosphere made up of?
Mostly CO2 with virtually no Oxygen. There was also water vapour and small amounts of Methane and Ammonia
148 of 159
What happened to the early CO2 in the atmosphere?
It dissolved into the Oceans and was used in Photosynthesis
149 of 159
What happened to the Carbon in the CO2 in the early atmosphere?
When plants and algae died and were buried under sediment, The carbon inside them became 'locked up' or 'Formed' in the bones of the sea creatures or in the sedimentary rock
150 of 159
What are 4 steps in the Carbon cycle to do with CO2 dissolving into the oceans?
1. CO2 from the atmosphere dissolves into the oceans 2. It becomes locked up in the bones of sea creatures and rocks 3. Crude oil forms 4. Crude oil is burnt and put back into the atmosphere
151 of 159
What are 3 steps in the carbon cycle to do with Photosynthesis?
1. CO2 from the atmosphere is used in photosynthesis 2. The plants produce oxygen which we breathe 3. We respire and put Carbon back into the atmosphere
152 of 159
What 2 things happened during the atmosphere's build up of Oxygen?
1. Some early organisms that couldn't tolerate it were killed off, and that allowed other organisms to evolve 2. The Ozone layer was created which blocked harmful rays from the sun
153 of 159
Do we need to worry about CO2 in the atmsophere and why?
Yes because it's increasing and it cases global warming. No because it's only increasing in tiny amounts and barely has an effect, And, the oceans are absorbing it from the atmosphere naturally
154 of 159
What does the Primordial soup Theory state?
That billions of years ago, The Earth's atmosphere was rich in Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Ammonia and Methane. :ightning struck causing a chemical reaction between the gases, resulting in the formation of Amino Acids
155 of 159
What did Miller and Urey do?
They carried out an experiment t prove the Primordial soup theory. They sealed the gases in their apparatus, heated then and applied an electrical charge for a week
156 of 159
What did Miller and Urey find from their experiment?
They found that Amino acids were made, But not as many as there are on Earth
157 of 159
Why were Amino acids important in the early stages of life?
They form proteins and are the building blocks to life
158 of 159
What are 3 flaws in the Primordial soup Theory?
1. There's no proof that the gases they chose were present 2. Miller and Urey chose gases they knew would make Amino acids ( no CO2) 3. There's no proof that there was lightning or that electricity simulates it properly
159 of 159
Other cards in this set
What charge and mass do Protons have?
Charge - +1 Mass - 1
What charge and mass do Neutrons have?
What charge and mass do Electrons have?
How do you work out the number of Protons?