C1 Module

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How can you count atoms?
Draw molecular formulae
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What 4 additives are added to food and why?
Food colouring - looks more appetising. Flavour enhancers - brings out taste & smell. Antioxidants - preserves food for longer. Emulsifiers - blends oil & water.
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How do emulsifiers work?
The emulsifiers have molecules with one end that attracts water and one that attracts oil. This means the oil and water molecules and join together.
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Why do foods have to be cooked?
Some taste better, some are easier to digest, some are poisonous raw & cooking can kill microbes.
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How is an ester formed?
Acid + Alcohol -> Ester + Water
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What properties do perfumes need?
Easy evaporation, Non-toxic, No reaction with water, Insoluble in water & Not irritating the skin.
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How is acid rain harmful?
Lakes become acidic which kills animals & plants and the rain damages metal and stone
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What is a plastic?
A long-chain molecule called a polymer
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How can non-biodegradable plastic cause problems?
They can't break down so they don't rot. This means they're hard to get rid of as they won't decompose naturally and burning them can cause poison to be released.
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What holds the atoms in a molecule together?
Very strong covalent bonds
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What's the order of fractional distillation?
Bitumen - Oil - Diesel - Kerosene - Naptha - Petrol - LPG
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Why do some compounds come out of the fractional distillation column before others?
The compounds at the bottom have longer chains and higher boiling points which means they leave the column early on.
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What is cracking?
Splitting up long-chain hydrocarbons
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What needs to be considered when choosing the best fuel?
Availability, cost, toxitity, pollution, storage, energy value, ease of use
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What are the 3 phases of the evolution of the atmosphere?
Volcanoes gave out steam and CO , Green plants evolved & produced oxygen, Ozone layer allows evolution of complex animals
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What mainly affects air composition?
Human activity - population increase means more respiration, more energy use & deforestation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What 4 additives are added to food and why?

Back

Food colouring - looks more appetising. Flavour enhancers - brings out taste & smell. Antioxidants - preserves food for longer. Emulsifiers - blends oil & water.

Card 3

Front

How do emulsifiers work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do foods have to be cooked?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is an ester formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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