C1 Metals and electrolysis

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what is an ore
a rock which contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting the meal from it
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what is bauxite and the formula
the main aluminium ore containing aluminium oxide Al2O3
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why does the economics of metals change
if the metal isnt worth as muh its not worthwhile to extract it
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how are metals extracted from their ore
extracted chemically by reduction or electrolysis
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how does reduction with carbon work
it is reduced meaning oxygen is removed, method can only be used if the metal is below carbon in the reactivity series
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when is electrolysis used
when metals are higher than carbon in the reactivity series
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disadvantage of electrolysis compared to reduction
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why is copper electrolysed even though its less reactive than carbon
because the copper produced is very impure and impure copper doesnt conduct electricity so electrolysis is used to purify it
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what does electrolysis mean
splitting up with electricity
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what does OIL RIG stand for and what does it mean
Oxidation Is Loss, Reduction Is Gain (of electrons)
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what does the electrolyte need to contain and why
free ions which conduct the electricity completing the circuit
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the half equation for the anode
2H+ + 2e- = H2
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the half equation for the cathode
2Cl- = Cl2 + 2e-
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3 basic steps of electrolysis
electrons are pulled off the anode causing them to go into the solution as ions, the ions near the cathode gain electrons and turn back into their atoms
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what is the sludge formed from in the process of electrolysing impure copper to get pure copper
the impurities that are dropped
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how does displacement work
the more reactive metal will replace the less reactive metal in a solution of a dissolved metal compound because the more reactive metal bonds more strongly to the non-metal bit of the compound and pushes out the less reactive metal
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why is it good to be able to use iron to displace copper in copper sulfate solution
copper is more valuable than iron
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copper rich supplies are .... so it's important that we ....?
limited ...... recycle as much copper as possible
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the demand for copper is ... which may lead to ... in the ...?
growing ... shortages ... future
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two ways of extracting copper from low grade ores
bioleaching & phytomining
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what is bioleaching
using bacteria to separate copper from copper sulfide
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how does bioleaching work
the bacteria get energy from the bond between copper and sulfur, separating out the copper from the ore in the process. the leachate contains copper which can be extracted by filtering
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what is a leachate
the solution produced by the process
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what is phytomining
growing plants in soils that contain copper
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how does phytomining work
the copper builds up in the plants leaves so they are dried and burned in a furnace which leaves the copper
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pro and con of these methods
better for environment than previous methods, very slow
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4 pros to mining
useful products can be made, provides jobs, brings money to area, local services eg transport can be improved
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4 cons to mining
noise pollution, landscape scarring, loss of habitats, abandoned mine shafts are dangerous
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4 properties of generic metals
strong, malleable, good at conducting heat, good at conducting electricity
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why is copper good for wires
good conductor of electricity, hard and strong but can still be bent, doesnt react with water
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use for aluminium
make into planes
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why would you use aluminium for this
strong malleable but also light
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properties of aluminium
corrosion-resistant, low density
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use for titanium
replacement hips
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why would you use titanium for this
doesnt corrode when in contact with water, light and not too bendy
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properties of titanium
low density, very strong, corrosion-resistant
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how do you protect a metal from corrosion
paint them
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what are metals exposed to when they corrode
air, water
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what is it called when metals get tired from stress
metal fatigue
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why is this dangerous
leads to metals breaking
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how do alloys strengthen metals
the mixture of different sized atoms distort the regular arrangement of a pure metal making it difficult for layers to slide over eachother
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what is low carbon steel made of
0.1% of carbon
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low carbon steel properties
easily shaped
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low carbon steel is used for
car bodies
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what is high carbon steel made of
1.5% carbon
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high carbon steel properties
very hard, inflexible
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high carbon steel is used for
blades for cutting tools, bridges
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stainless steel is made of
iron, carbon and chromium SOMETIMES nickel
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property of steel
corrosion resistant
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uses of steel
cutlery, containers for corrosive substances
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how is bronze made
copper and tin
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uses of bronze
making medals and statues
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properties of bronze
harder than copper
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how is cupronickel made
copper and nickel
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uses of cupronickel
to make silver coins
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properties of cupronickel
hard and corrosion-resistant
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what is gold jewellery made from
gold and zinc; copper; silver; palladium; nickel
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what are aeroplanes made from
aluminium alloys
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


what is bauxite and the formula


the main aluminium ore containing aluminium oxide Al2O3

Card 3


why does the economics of metals change


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


how are metals extracted from their ore


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


how does reduction with carbon work


Preview of the front of card 5
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