C1 Chemistry OCRgateway

Range of questions to do with C1 with detailed answers. 

How does an emulsifier work?
The emulsifier has a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail. When you shake the oil and water together with some emulsifier the oil will form droplets coated in emulsifier with the hydrophilic head facing out. This will attract the water molecules.
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What happens to proteins when cooked?
The energy from cooking causes some bonds to break. Protein can then take a different shape therefore becoming denatured. Protein will have more edible texture.
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What happens to potatoes when cooked?
A potato cell has a cell wall made of cellulose which humans can't digest. Cooking breaks down the cell wall . It also makes the starch grains swell and spread making the potato softer and easier to digest.
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What is thermal decomposition?
When a substance is heated so breaks down into simpler substances.
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What is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate?
sodium hydrogencarbonate ---> sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water
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What is the test to identify if carbon dioxide is present?
If limewater turns cloudy when it is bubbled through
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What is esterification?
When an ester is made. Acid + alcohol ---> ester + water.
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What are the 5 properties perfumes need?
Easily evaporates, non-toxic, doesn't react with water, doesn't irritate skin and insoluble in water.
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Why do /why don't people want to test cosmetics on animals?
They do as it's best to check it won't damage humans. They don't as they believe it's wrong to cause suffering to animals and animal tests may not be correct.
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What is volatility?
How easily a liquid evaporates. As liquid is heated fast moving particles at the surface will overcome attraction and evaporate.
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What is the definition of a solution?
Mixture of a solvent(liquid) and solute(solid) that doesn't separate out
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Why is nail varnish insoluble in water?
Nail varnish molecules have a stronger attraction to each other than the attraction between molecules of nail varnish and water. Vice Versa.
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Why is nail varnish soluble in acetone?
The attraction between the acetone and nail varnish molecules are stronger than the attraction holding the two substances together
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What is the pigment,binding medium and solvent in paint?
Pigment - gives colour. Binding medium - liquid that carries the pigment and sticks them to the surface when solid. Solvent - thins the paint.
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What is a colloid?
When tiny particles of one substance are dispersed in particles of another.In paint the pigment is dispersed in a liquid.
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What is an emulsion paint?
Solvent - water. Binding medium - acrylic or vinyl acetate polymer.
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What is a gloss paint/oil paint?
Solvent - organic compound that dissolves in oil. Binding medium - oil.
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What is a thermochromic pigment?
They change colour when they are heated e.g. mood rings
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What is a phosphorescent pigment?
They absorb natural or artificial light storing the energy in their molecules to use later. E.g. glow in the dark hands on watches
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What is polymerisation?
When a polymer is formed from lots of monomers joining together
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What is addition polymerisation?
When unsaturated monomers open up their double bond to join onto others and create polymer chains
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Why is nylon often used to make clothing?
They can be covered with polyurethane to become tough, waterproof outdoor clothing which keeps UV light out
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What is the problem with the polyurethane?
Doesn't let water vapour pass meaning sweat will condense inside
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What is GORE-TEX?
Has all the useful properties of polyurethane but is also breathable.
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How does GORE-TEX work?
Laminated film of plastic (PTFE) is placed on a layer of another fabric. PTFE has holes which let water vapour through but not water droplets.
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Why are non-biodegradable plastics a problem?
They aren't broken down by microbes so don't rot. Therefore are difficult to dispose of as landfill's will fill up fast.
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound made of hydrogen and carbon atoms only
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What are alkanes?
Alkanes are saturated compounds consisting of only single covalent bonds
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What are alkenes?
Alkenes are unsaturated compounds consisting of one or more double covalent bonds
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What order are compounds of crude oil released during fractional distillation?cool to hot.
LPG,petrol,naphtha,kerosene,diesel,oil,bitumen
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What happens as the size of a hydrocarbon increases?
Boiling point increases, less flammable, more viscous, less volatile
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What is cracking?
Form of thermal decomposition that turns long alkane molecules into more useful, smaller alkane and alkene molecules
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How does cracking work?
Vaporised hydrocarbons are passed over aluminium oxide(catalyst) at high temperatures
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What are the political issues a shortage of oil can cause?
Countries with big stocks may keep it for themselves, countries with limited supply may have to rely on politically unstable countries, price of oil will rise
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What are the environmental issues oil can cause?
Oil tanker crashes will release crude oil into the sea causing oil slicks, oil stops sea birds' feathers from being waterproof
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What are the 7 things to consider when choosing the best fuel?
Energy value,availability,storage,cost,toxicity,ease of use and pollution
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What is the word equation for complete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
hydrocarbon + oxygen-->carbon dioxide + water
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What is the word equation for incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
hydrocarbon + oxygen-->carbon dioxide + water + carbon + carbon monoxide
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What is the main aspects of the carbon cycle?
respiration,combustion and decay of animals/plants add carbon dioxide but remove oxygen. Photosynthesis does the opposite.
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How does human activity affect the amount of carbon dioxide in the air?
More people results in more respiration and the need for more energy so more fossil fuels are burnt.Also more land is needed so trees which remove CO2 are destroyed.
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How is acid rain caused?
When fossil fuels are burnt they produce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which mix with clouds to form dilute sulfuric and nitric acid which falls as acid rain
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens to proteins when cooked?

Back

The energy from cooking causes some bonds to break. Protein can then take a different shape therefore becoming denatured. Protein will have more edible texture.

Card 3

Front

What happens to potatoes when cooked?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is thermal decomposition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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