What is the relative charge of an electron
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what is the relative charge of a neutron
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what is the relative charge of a proton
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what is the relative mass of an electron?
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what is the relative mass of a neutron?
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what is the relative mass of a proton?
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what does the mass number indicate?
number of protons + number of neutrons
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what does the atomic number indicate?
number of protons
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how can you tell which is the mass number?
it is the biggest one
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what is the number of protons equal to in a stable electron?
number of electrons
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what are atoms with a full outer shell called?
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when metal atoms lose electrons what do they become
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when non metal atoms gain electrons what do they become
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what features do group one atoms have?
group 1 atoms are very reactive.
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how can you tell how many electrons are in an atoms outer shell?
the atoms group number in the periodic table is the number of its electrons in the outer shell
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what products are made from limestone?
if limestone is crushed and mixed with clay +heated it becomes cement, if you mix limestone clay and sand you get mortar, if you mix limestone clay sand and small stones you get concrete. Also makes glass.
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what are the negatives of quarrying limestone?
noise, dust, pollution from vehicles used, visual pollution
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advs of quarrying limestone?
valuable material produced, local employment
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explain limestone cycle.
diagram in text book to check.
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what is the main component of limestone?
calcium carbonate (CaCo3)
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what is calcium oxide? what is it used for?
it is an alkali, so can be used to neutralise acids.
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what is calcium hydroxide? what is it used for?
limewater, it is used as a test for co2: when co2 is bubbled through limewater the limewater turns cloudy.
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how are metals more reactive than carbon extracted?
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what are alloys?
a mixture of elements, one of which is a metal. Alloys have properties that are different to the metals they contain& makes them more useful.
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how can metal oxides less reactive than carbon be extracted?
metal oxides less reactive than carbon are reduced by carbon in a furnace to leave the pure metal.
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how is iron made?
coke, limestone and iron oxide heated in blast furnace. coke when heated makes co2, co2 reacts with carbon to form carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide reduces iron oxide to iron and melted iron runs to bottom & is tapped off.
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what are the properties of iron when it comes out of the blast furnace? What do you call it when it comes out of the blast furnace?
brittle (breaks easily), strong (doesn't get easily compressed)- you call it cast iron.
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what happens if you purify iron? what do you call it?
it goes soft. We call it steel.
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why is pure iron easier to shape than alloys of iron/impure iron?
because all of the atoms in it are the same size, and are arranged in neat collums and rows. Therefore this allows the layers of atoms to slide over each other and change shape.
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How are the features of steel changed if you alter the amount of carbon in it?
low carbon steel: easy to shape, high carbon steel: hard
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how is stainless steel made?
iron is alloyed with chromium and nickel
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what are the traits of aluminium and titanium?
very low density , resistant to corrosion because of the tough oxide layer on them
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why can't titanium and aluminium be extracted by carbon? why is extracting them expensive?
they are more reactive than carbon. They are expensive to extract as there are many stages in the process and large amounts of energy are used.
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what is a metal ore?
a rock that contains a significant amount of the metal of interest in it, however is usually combined with other impurities.
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how do you get rid of the impurities in an ore to leave the pure metal?
concentrate the ore by carrying out chemical reactions to remove oxygen and leave the pureish metal
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what are the transition metals? what are their properties?
found in the middle of periodic table,they are good conductors, can be bent and hammed into shape but are hard.
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why is copper used for wiring and plumbing?
used for wiring as is a good conductor, used for plumbing as can be bent but is hard enough to use for pipes, also doesn't react with water
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why are there new methods being developed to extract copper? what are they?
because copper rich ores are running out & traditional mining & extraction methods have major environmental impacts. So new methods to extract copper from low-grade ores made: e.g phytomining and bleaching
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what is reduction?
the removal of oxygen
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what is bio-leaching?
bioleaching is when bacteria are used to produce leachate solution,s containing the metal compound.
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what is phytomining?
phytomining is when plants are used to absorb metal compounds, these plants are then burned to produce an ash containing the compound.
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describe electrolysis of copper.
pure copper cathode & impure copper anode put in copper sulphate. Copper cations leave anode & go to cathode,& gain electrons & become copper atoms so cathode big. At anode, copper cations leave so dwindles away, impurities left as sludge at anode.
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what is the aluminium ore?
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describe electrolysis of aluminium
al. ox. removed from bauxite. Al ox. has v.high b.p so is dissolved in molten cryolite w/ lower b.p = cheaper. al. cations go to cathode so aluminium forms &tapped. ox.anions go to anode & reacts w/carbon forms co2 & anodes burn. anode replaced =cost
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how is titanium extracted
titanium purified & reacted w/chlorine = titanium chloride. Then titanium chloride reacted w/ Mg in displacement reaction to leave titanium on own. Costly bc Mg only extracted thru electrolysis, & reaction must be done in argon atmosphere
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name some properties of metals
solid (apart from Hg), shiny, malleable, ductile, sonorous, gd conductors
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what is ALWAYS a product of cracking?
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what are shape memory polymers?
when heated they return to their original shape, e.g nitinol used in braces, also in glasses
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what is the word equation for fermentation of ethanol?
sugar --> ethanol +co2
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where are unreactive metals found?
in the earth as the metals itself
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name some pure metals which are very soft?
gold, aluminium, iron and copper.
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why would these metals be alloyed?
to make them harder, and to make them less expensive (gold and aluminium in particular)
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where are reactive metals found?
as minerals in ores
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what is the method of separating a metal from its oxide if it's less reactive than carbon? what does it produce?
metal oxides can be extracted from their ore by combining them with carbon, (ONLY IF CARBON IS MORE REACTIVE THAN THE METAL OXIDE), so the metal will be left pure and a waste gas of co2 will be produced.
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what method can you use to extract the metal from its ore if it is above carbon in the reactivity series?
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why should we recycle metals?
cheaper in terms of energy rather than digging out more, no emissions of gas that will contribute to global warming, resources are running out so we should conserve remaining ores.
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where is crude oil found? how is it collected?
buried deep in rock & a pipe line goes from the rock where the crude oil is found & pumped up into an oil rig which is then pumped into a tanker/ship so the crude oil can be transported elsewhere
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what is crude oil?
a mixture of many hydrocarbon compounds
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what is a mixture?
a substance in which it's properties aren't chemically combined, so crude oil can be easily separated.
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what is a boiling point?
the temp at which a liquid turns into a gas, but also the temp at which it condenses to a liquid when it’s a gas.
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explain fractional distillation of crude oil (on large scale)
crude oil heated to highest b.p of liquids, so all liquids evaporate &move up tower. Tower is cooler at top &hot at bottom, so when each gas reaches its own b.p temp as it travels up, it cools & condenses & is separated into it’s own fraction.
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what are hydrocarbons?
hydrocarbons are molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon
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how does the size of a hydrocarbon molecule effect its features?
the bigger a hydrogen molecule is the more it's viscosity increases, it's flammability decreases and it's boiling point increases.
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why are hydrocarbons cracked?
to be broken into smaller, more useful molecules.
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how are hydrocarbons cracked?
the hydrocarbons are heated to vaporise them, and then their vapour are passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam at a very high temp to break the chemical bonds and form smaller hydrocarbon molecules
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what kind of reaction does cracking involve?
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what are alkanes?
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what are the first 4 alkanes called? what are their formulas?
methane CH4, ethane C2H6, propane C3H8, butane C4H10
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what are alkenes?
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what does "saturated" mean?
saturated means that no more hydrogen atoms can fit in the hydrocarbon molecule as there are no carbon-carbon double bonds
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what does "unsaturated" mean?
unsaturated means that hydrogen atoms can fit into the hydrocarbon molecule as there are carbon-carbon double bonds
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what is the test to see whether a substance is unsaturated/ an alkene is present? explain how/why this works?
mix with bromine water; if an alkene/unsaturated substance is present it will turn from an orange colour to a clear colour. It turns clear because of the double bonds in it.
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what is the formula for alkenes?
Cn H2n (insert the number of carbons into n)
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what is the formula for alkanes?
Cn H2n+2 (insert the number of carbons into n)
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how is acid rain made?
sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen can dissolve with water in the air to produce sulphuric acid and nitric acid, which falls to make acid rain
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can you explain the impact burning fossil fuels has?
sulphur dioxides & oxides of nitrate make acid rain which dissolves in the sea killing creatures, is absorbed by leaves affecting photosynthesis & growth of plants. co2 causes global warming. particulates cause global dimming.
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what is the result of acid rain?
can directly affect plant leaves, so results in less photosynthesis and less growth & kills insects and sea creatures if goes in sea.
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what are alternative cleaner fuels?
biodiesel and ethanol (produced from plant material) - so is renewable and produces no co2 overall as co2 absorbed by plants its made from in photosynthesis.
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how is ethanol made? (2 methods)
fermentation and the hydration of ethene.
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explain the process of the fermentation to get ethanol fuel?
sugar cane has starch extracted by heating it in water, where it's starch is broken down to sugars by enzymes. Sugars are fermented with yeast at 35 degrees & left few days. when ethanol conc. reaches 15% yeast dies & fermentation stops. Ethanol f.d
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what are the advs and disadvs of the fermentation method
ADVS: cheap (because of low temp), cheap raw material, renewable raw material. DISADVS: two step process, because of fractional distillation costs are increased, need lots of land to produce crops for sugar
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explain the process of the hydration of ethene to make ethanol?
ethene is mixed with steam and passed over a hot catalyst, so that hydration is caused and ethanol is produced.
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what are the advs and disadvs of the hydration of ethene method?
ADVS: one step process (quicker), 95% conversion. DISADVS: expensive (high temp and pressure), ethene comes from crude oil which is non renewable
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what is ethene made from?
crude oil (it is a hydrocarbon)!!!
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what are the drawbacks of ethanol?
takes a lot of sugar cane to make & the fields could be used for growing crops instead. Also risk of crop failure/
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what are the uses of ethanol?
disinfectants, perfume, fuel, alcohol
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biofuels advs and disadvs?
low energy use so is cheap, provides jobs, renewable resources, carbon neutral BUT slow process, risk of crop failure, cheap labour, shortage of food as plants being used for fuel, habitat destruction
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what does carbon neutral mean?
making no overall release of co2 into atmosphere
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why are fossil fuels not carbon neutral?
they lock carbon in their structure which is converted into co2 when they are burned
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what is a way of reducing impact of fossil fuel combustion?
sulphur can be removed from fuels before being burnt to stop acid rain.
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why is the combustion of ethanol much cleaner than that of fossil fuels?
it only burns to produce co2 and water; there are no particulates and sulphur dioxide produced
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what is incomplete combustion?
incomplete combustion happens when something burns when their is limited oxygen supply.
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what happens when hydrocarbon fuels go through incomplete combustion? equation?
hydrocarbon + oxygen --> carbon + carbon monoxide + water
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what happens when hydrocarbon fuels are combusted? equation?
a lot of energy is released and during combustion, the hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen atoms in the air to make water & carbon atoms combine with oxygen atoms to make co2. Hydrocarbon + oxygen --> co2 + water
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what are polymers?
made up of individual monomers, that are joined together in polymerisation
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what are the features of polymers?
they are very unreactive, so they do not break down easily
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how are biodegradable polymers made?
by adding cornstarch to polymers, so bacteria can feed of this and break it down slowly.
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what are the uses of polymers?
fruit packaging etc so can respire & doesn't decay but co2 can escape, breathable fabric (vortex) doesn't allow rain in but sweat can evaporate, hydrogels (v. absorbent -use on wounds), shape memory polymers, when warmed can return to original shape
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how are vegetable oils produced?
crushing the plant material and then removing the oil by pressing or distillation
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why are vegetable oils important?
they provide energy and nutrients, they have higher boiling point than water so can be used to cook food at higher temperature & cook food faster than if they were boiled
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are vegetable oils saturated or unsaturated? how can they be hardened?
unsaturated, hardened by reacting them with hydrogen with a nickel catalyst at 60 degrees.
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how does adding hydrogen to vegetable oils change its state?
it causes hydrogenation and creates a chemical reaction, making the double bond in the hydrocarbon chain disappear.
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why are hydrogenation oils more useful?
they have higher melting points so are solid at room temp and therefore are useful as spreads etc.
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VEGETABLE OILS STRUCTURE ETC!!!!
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what are emulsions?
When oil is added to water it separates- so an emulsifier is added. Emulsifier's tail is hydrophobic &buries in oil droplet, & head is hydrophilic so stays on surface of droplet. Oil & water can’t separate as held together by emulsifier.
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what are some examples of emulsifiers? what do they do?
egg yolk, The emulsifier makes sure that the oil droplets stay as droplets so the mixture doesn’t separate again.
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what are the features of emulsions?
they are more viscous than the original substance and better at coating things.
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what are some examples of emulsions?
mayonnaise, paint, cosmetics
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what are the features of unsaturated fats?
they are solid at room temp as they have a higher melting point. no double bonds, and made from long hydrocarbon chains. tend to come from animals (butter etc). tend to be unhealthy.
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what are the features of unsaturated fats?
liquid at room temp as they have a lower melting point. contain double bonds. tend to come from plants (e,g olive oil) and be more healthy.
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how can you tell whether a fat is saturated or not?
if you add a saturated fat to bromine water, it won't change colour, but if you add an unsaturated fat, it will change colour.
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explain the structure of our earth.
crust (outer layer) is the thinnest, below the crust is the mantle (thick), core is solid.
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what is earth's atmosphere made up of?
about 80% nitrogen, about 20% oxygen, and small proportions of co2, water vapour etc.
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what was the earth's EARLY atmosphere made up of?
mainly co2, some methane, some ammonia and a trace of water vapour.
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how did these gases become present in the atmosphere?
During the Earth’s early existence there was a lot of volcanic activity, the gases the volcanoes gave out formed the atmosphere of the early earth
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how did we get oceans?
As the Earth cooled, the water vapour condensed to form oceans.
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how did oxygen levels go up?
photosynthesis as plants began to grow
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how did co2 levels go down?
co2 was dissolved in water as oceans developed, co2 was absorbed in sedimentary rocks as they were formed and in fossil fuels from the remains of dead plants and animals
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what was wegners theory?
All continents were once joined together as a supercontinent, which broke apart and the continents slowly moved away from each other.
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how did he show this?
-continents fit together -rock types in areas he suggested once fitted together, were identical -fossils in areas he suggested once fitted together, were identical
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why was his theory not accepted?
-Wegner not a scientist/geologist -Wegner couldn’t explain how the continents moved
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CONTINENTAL DRIFT TEXTBOOK!!!!!!
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what were original ideas about how mountains were formed?
it was thought that mountains formed because the Earth was cooling down, and in doing so contracted. This was believed to form wrinkles, or mountains, in the Earth's crust.
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how do we know this is not accurate?
If the idea was correct, however, mountains would be spread evenly over the Earth's surface. We know this is not the case.
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how are volcanoes formed?
If the plates are moving apart, as at mid-ocean ridges, volcanoes are produced as molten magma is allowed to escape.
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how are mountains formed?
If the plates are moving towards each other, the edges of the plates crumple, and one plate ‘dives’ under the other. This is called subduction.
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how are earthquakes formed?
If the plates are moving sideways, stresses build up at the plate boundary. When the stress reaches some critical value, the plates slip suddenly, causing an earthquake
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what was the miller urey experiment?
A container of water heated so produces water vapour which is transferred to another chamber & ammonia, methane, hydrogen added. Electric sparks passed through it, simulating lightning. After a week, amino acids found,the building blocks for proteins
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why was the miller urey experiment significant?
it supported the idea that complex chemicals needed for living things to develop could be produced naturally on the early Earth. The Early earth was thought to have perfect conditions to develop life.
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what are the contents of air on earth?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1 % made up of traces of argon and co2
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explain the fractional distillation of air.
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what is argon used for? what are it's properties
it is very unreactive so is used in filament lamps as when the light in it glows it won't burn as it doesn't contain oxygen to react with . also argon is used to preserve things, as it is so unreactive.
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what is liquid nitrogen used for? why?
to preserve things (food etc) as it is unreactive.
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what needs to be done to extract metal compounds in minerals? why?
compounds in minerals are reactive so they need chemical reactions for extraction (e.g remove oxygen by reduction)
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name two types of bases that only produce two products when reacted with acid?
metal oxides and metal hydroxides
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what happens when metal oxides and hydroxides are reacted with acids?
produce a salt and water
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what type of bases make 3 products when reacted with acids?
metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates
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what happens when metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates are reacted with acids?
a salt, a water and a carbon dioxide.
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what are bases?
bases are alkalis that don't dissolve in water
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what are alkalis?
bases that dissolve in water
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what PH do neutral solutions have?
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what Ph do acidic solutions have?
ph less than 7
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what ph does an alkaline solution have?
more than 7
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what is the word equation for hydration of ethene?
ethene + water --> ethanol
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what are the properties of unsaturated fats?
liquid at room temp, lower melting point, contains double bonds
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how can unsaturated fats be hardened?
react w/ hydrogen gas at 60 degrees, and passed over a nickel catalyst, this converts the double bonds to single bonds by hydrogenation and unsat. fats made into sat. fats
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what are the properties of saturated fats?
high melting point, solid at room temp, long hydrocarbon chains (no double bonds)
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what is the percentage of gases in earth's atmosphere?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% other gases (co2, water vapour,argon)
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Other cards in this set
what is the relative charge of a neutron
what is the relative charge of a proton
what is the relative mass of an electron?
what is the relative mass of a neutron?