Chemistry Metals, Limestone & Other

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What are the number of protons in an atom equal to?
The number of electrons.
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What does an element consist of?
One type of atom only.
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How many electrons can fill the first shell of an atom?
2.
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What is a compound?
Atoms that are joint together with chemical bonds.
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What is Limestone mainly made of?
Calcium Carbonate.
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What is the equation for Limestone thermally decomposing?
Calcium Carbonate -> calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
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What is the equation for Limestone reacting with sulfuric acid?
Calcium Carbonate + sulfuric acid -> calcium sulfate + carbon dioxide + water
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What does calcium oxide react with water to produce?
Calcium Hydroxide
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What is the equation for calcium oxide and water?
Calcium Oxide + water -> Calcium Hydroxide
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What is calcium hydroxide and what can it be used for?
Its an alkali, and it can be used to neutralise acidic soils in fields
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why is calcium hydroxide more effective than powdered limestone at neutralisation?
Because its faster
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How is cement made?
By heating limestone in a kiln along with powdered clay.
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How is mortar made and what is it used for?
Mixing cement with water and sand makes mortar, and it can be used to stick bricks together.
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How is concrete made?
By mixing cement with sand and aggregate
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Name 3 disadvantages of quarrying.
1) It makes huge ugly holes that permanently change the landscape. 2) It can make loads of noise and dust in quiet and scenic ares. 3) It destroys the habitats of birds and animals.
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Name 2 disadvantages of quarrying.
1) The limestone needs to be transported away, which causes further noise and pollution. 2) Waste materials produce unsightly tips
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Why are cement factories bad?
They produce alot of dust which can cause breathing problems for some people.
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whats another name for calcium oxide?
Quicklime
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Name 3 positives of quarrying.
1) Limestone can be used in power station chimneys to neutralise sulfur dioxide. 2) The quarries bring jobs. 3) It can be used to makes houses and roads.
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What is an ore?
A rock which contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting metal from it.
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Name the main aluminium ore.
Bauxite
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Give a reason why the profitability of metal extraction can change over time.
As technology improves, it becomes possible to extract more metal from an ore than was originally possible. So it might now be worth extracting metal that wasn't worth extracting in the past.
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Name two ways that metals can be extracted from their ores chemically.
Reduction and Electrolysis.
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What does reduction use?
Carbon
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How is Carbon used to extract metal from ores?
It removes the oxygen leaving behind the pure metal. This is called reduction.
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List the Reactivity Series from most to least Reactive.
Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Aluminium (Al), Carbon (C), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Tin (Sn), Copper (Cu).
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Why is Carbon used in reduction?
Because carbon is the only thing that can take the oxygen away from metals which are less reactive than carbon itself is.
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Which Elements in the reactivity series can electrolysis be used on?
Anything higher than carbon.
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Is electrolysis cheap? Why?
No, it requires alot of energy.
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What is smelting?
Heating copper in a furnace.
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What kind of copper does smelting produce? How do we get rid of that?
Impure copper is produced which is then purified by electrolysis.
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Can you extract copper by electrolysis?
You could, but its more expensive.
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Whats a better conductor, pure or impure copper?
Pure
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What does Electrolysis mean?
Electrolysis means splitting up with electricity.
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Whats an electrolyte? What is it made of?
The liquid required during electrolysis to conduct the electricity. They are often metal salt solutions made from the ore of whatever you're extracting or molten metal oxides.
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What does an electrolyte contain that allows electrolysis to work?
Free Ions
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What does the acronym PANIC stand for?
Positive Anode, Negative Is Cathode.
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How is electroylsis used for copper?
Electrons are pulled off copper atoms at the anode, causing them to go into the solution as Cu2+. Cu2+ ions near the cathode gain electrons and turn back into copper atoms. Impurities are a sludge at the anode, pure copper atoms bond to the cathode
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What happens if you put a more reactive metal into a solution of dissolved metal compound?
The more reactive metal will replace the less reactive metal in the compound because the more reactive metals bonds more strongly to the non-metal bit of the compound and pushes out the less reactive metal.
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Explain copper extraction from a solution using a displacement reaction.
Copper Sulfate + Iron (scraps) -> iron sulfate + copper
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Why is it important to recycle copper?
Because its running out as demand for it is growing, it may lead to shortages in the future.
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What is bioleaching?
Bacteria is used to get energy from the bond between copper and sulfur, separating the copper from the ore in the process. The leachate (solution produced from this process) contains copper which can be extracted e.g. by filtering.
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What is phytomining?
Plants are grown in copper rich soils and they have to intake the copper into their leaves. They are then harvested, dried and burned in a forest. The ash left behind contains copper.
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Why is recycling metals important?
Energy is expensive, recycling saves money. There's also a finite amount of each metal in the Earth. Recycling conserves these sources.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does an element consist of?

Back

One type of atom only.

Card 3

Front

How many electrons can fill the first shell of an atom?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a compound?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Limestone mainly made of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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