C1 Alkanes, Crude Oil and Environmental Problems

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what is refined gas used for and why
bottled gas because it has a short chain of hydrocarbons meaning it is very flammable
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what are the viscous hydrocarbons used for
bitumen
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what are alkanes made up of
chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
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what are the first four alkanes
MethANE; EthANE; PropANE; ButANE
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equation for alkanes
CnH2n+2
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why are crude oils good fuels
burn cleanly
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3 uses for alkanes as a fuel
central heating systems, power stations
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what does crude oil provide the raw material for
plastics
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how is crude oil being replaced as a way of generating electricity
nuclear power or wind power
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how is crude oil being replaced as a fuel
ethanol powered cars, solar energy to heat water
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why is crude oil predominantly used if there are alternatives
readily available so easiest and cheapest thing to use
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what type of fuel is crude oil classed as
non-renewable
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how are we enabled to extract oil we couldnt before
improvements in technology
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what is oil essential for
chemicals and medicines
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whats the best alternative so far
generating energy from renewable resources
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4 climatic hazards with crude oil
oil spills which poison birds and sea creatures, global warming, acid rain, global dimming
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what percentage of crude oil is used for fuels
90%
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what happens in the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel
the carbon and hydrogen are oxidised to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour
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equation for the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel
carbon + hydrogen > carbon dioxide + water vapour
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what happens if there is sulfur impurities
the sulfur will be released when the fuel is burned as sulfur dioxide
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when will oxides of nitrogen form
if the fuel burns at a high temperature
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whats the process called when there is not enough oxygen
partial combustion
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what happens in partial combustion
some of the fuel doesnt burn
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what is released in partial combustion
particulates of soot, unburnt fuel and carbon monoxide
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whats the process called when there is lots of oxygen
complete combustion
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what happens in complete combustion
all the fuel burns
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how does SO2 form acid rain
the sulfur dioxide mixes with clouds and forms a dilute sulfuric acid which then fallas as acid rain
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what type of acid does SO2 form
sulfuric acid
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what do oxides of nitrogen create
acid rain
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what type of acid does this form
nitric acid
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4 environmental hazards of acid rain
makes lakes acidic, links between acid rain and human health problems, kills trees, damages limestone buildings
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what do the benefits of electricity have to be balanced with
environmental impacts
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3 ways to reduce sulfur emissions
remove sulfur from fuels before burned, power stations have acid gas scrubbers, reduce usage of fossil fuels
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3 negatives to removing sulfur from fuels
costs more, takes more energy, energy comes from burning more fuel
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why are CO2 levels increasing and what has it caused
large amounts of fossil fuels humans burn, average temperature of earth has increased
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what type of climate change is global warming
causes other types of climate change
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what do particles of soot and ash do
cause global dimming
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how does this happen
the particles of soot and ash reflect sunlight back into space
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how much less sunlight reaches the earths surface in the last 50 years
25% less
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what do some scientists believe about global dimming
they dont think its real and blame it on inaccurate recording equipment
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3 alternative fuels
ethanol biodiesel hydrogen gas
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facts on ethanol
produced from plant material so known as a biofuel, made by fermentation of plants
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facts on biodiesel
type of biofuel, produced from vegetable oils
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facts on hydrogen gas
used to power vehicles, can get the hydrogen from the electrolysis of water
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2 pros to ethanol
carbon neutral, only other product is water (when burnt)
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3 cons to ethanol
engines need to be converted to work with ethanol fuels, isnt widely available, may increase food prices
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3 pros to biodiesel
carbon neutral, engines dont need to be converted, produces less sulfur dioxide
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3 cons to biodiesel
cant make enough to completely replace diesel, expensive to make, could increase food prices
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pro to hydrogen gas
forms just water so very clean
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4 cons to hydrogen gas
need special expensive engines, not widely available, need to use energy from another source to make it, hard to store
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what are the viscous hydrocarbons used for

Back

bitumen

Card 3

Front

what are alkanes made up of

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the first four alkanes

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

equation for alkanes

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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