C1-Air Quality

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  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 18-05-16 16:15
What was the first phase of the atmostphere?
Volcanoes erupted,gave out nitrogen,carbon dioxide and water vapour.Mostly carbon dioxide, little oxygen.Oceans formed when water vapour condensed.
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What was the second phase of the atmosphere?
Green plants evolved,lot of carbon dioxide dissolved in oceans, plants removed carbon dioxide,produced oxygen by photosynthesis.Carbon dioxide became locked up in sedimentary rocks as fossil fuels and insoluble carbonates.
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What was the third phase of the atmosphere?
Build up of oxygen killed off simple organisms, allowed more complex to evolve. Not much carbon dioxide left now.
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What are the percentages of the three main gases in the air?
Nitrogen=78% Oxygen=21% Argon=1%
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What are five pollutants?
Sulfur dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen oxides, Particulates
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How are gases and particulates naturally released?
By volcanoes.
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Give an example of a directly harmful pollutant.(to humans)
Carbon monoxide reduces amount of oxygen in blood, leads to flu-like symptoms and death.
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Give an example of how humans are indirectly harmed by pollutants.
Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain, pollutes rivers-kills fish people eat.Carbon dioxide leading to climate change.
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True or False, Reactants can have completely different properties than Products?
True- e.g. Carbon is black solid and oxygen is colourless gas, but when they react together product is carbon dioxide (a colourless gas with different properties to oxygen-heavier and can be toxic).
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What are fossil fuels?
Hydrocarbons
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What are hydrocarbons made up of?Give examples of hydrocarbon mixtures.
Compound of Hydrogen and Carbon. Fuels like petrol, diesel and fuel oil.
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What is the difference between different fuels?
The size of the hydrocarbons they contain.
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What is coal made up of?
Mainly carbon but has some impurities.
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What happens when a hydrocarbon burns?
Hydrogen reacts with oxygen=water. Carbon reacts with oxygen=carbon dioxide.
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What happens when coal burns?
Mostly get carbon dioxide.
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What is a reaction called when oxygen is added?
Oxidation.
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What is a reaction called when oxygen is lost?
Reduction
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Where does the oxygen come from when a hydrocarbon burns?
The air, or can be in form of pure oxygen.Burns faster in pure oxygen.
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What is combustion an example of?
Oxidation reaction.
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Why do we burn fossil fuels?
To release energy to power vehicles and produce electricity.
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When burning fossil fuels, under what conditions is carbon dioxide produced?
When there's a lot of oxygen available.
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When burning fossil fuels, under what condition is carbon monoxide produced?
When there is little oxygen, e.g. a car engine.
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What is the formula of carbon dioxide?
CO2
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How is carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere?
Plants use it for photosynthesis, dissolves in rainwater,lakes rivers etc.
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How is human activity increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
Burning fuels adds extra CO2 into atmosphere.
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What is the greenhouse effect?
Warming up of the Earth, causes sea levels to rise etc.
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What is the formula for Carbon monoxide?
CO
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What is incomplete combustion?
When carbon burns and there isn't enough oxygen so carbon monoxide is produced.
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Apart from carbon monoxide, what else is produced when fuels burn incompletely?
Carbon Particulates.
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What do particulates do after they've escaped into the atmosphere?
Fall back down and deposit as soot. Make buildings, statues etc look dirty.
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What are some of the impurities in carbon?
Sulfur.
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What does sulfur react with when burning?What does it produce?
Reacts with oxygen to produce Sulfur dioxide.
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What is the formula for Sulfur dioxide?
SO2
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What does sulfur dioxide cause?
Acid rain.
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Explain acid rain.
SO2 goes into atmosphere, reacts with moisture in clouds, dilute sulfuric acid formed.Falls as acid rain, causes lakes to become acidic-kills plants and animals-damages buildings and statues e.g. limestone.
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What are the two types of nitrogen pollution?
Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide.
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How is nitrogen pollution formed?
Fossil fuels burn at high temps.Nitrogen and Oxygen in air react together. Produces nitrogen pollution.
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What is the formula of Nitrogen monoxide?
NO
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What is the formula of Nitrogen dioxide?
NO2
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What can nitrogen oxides jointly be referred to?
NOx
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When does nitrogen monoxide form?
When nitrogen and oxygen in air are exposed to high temperatures, happens in car engine.
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When does nitrogen dioxide form?
Once nitrogen monoxide is in air, reacts with more oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide.
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What do nitrogen oxides form?
Acid rain(dilute nitric acid falls).
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How can we reduce pollution?
Take sulfur out of natural gas and fuel oil-little SO2. Remove SO2 and particulates from chimney before released.
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How can we remove SO2 and particulates from the chimeny?
1)Seawater-SO2 dissolved in seawater,produces CO2,H20 and dissolved sulfate.2)Alkaline slurry,e.g.calcium oxide in water-Slurry sprayed on gas, SO2 and calcium oxide react, solid calcium sulfite formed.
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How can we reduce CO2 emissions?
Reduce amount of fossil fuels burnt- use less electricity or find alternative energy sources.
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What is an efficient car engine?
Burn less fuel and create less pollution.
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How can the amount of sulfur emitted from car exhaust be reduced?
Low-sulfur fuel.
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What do catalytic converters do to nitrogen monoxide?What kind of reaction is this?
Convert Nitrogen monoxide into nitrogen and oxygen (reduction)
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What do catalytic converters do to carbon monoxide?What kind of reaction is this?
Convert carbon monoxide into Carbon dioxide (oxidation).
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What are emissiona?When are they checked?
Emissions is the amount of pollutants a car releases. There's a legal limit and a cars emissions are tested once a year in MOT.
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How could we reduce pollution?
Use cars less use public transport.
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What are two other ways we can power cars?
Bio-fuels and electric batteries.
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Sum up bio-fuels.
Renewable energy resources made from plants and waste, only produce CO2 and H2O.Carbon neutral.But,large areas of forest must be cleared to grow plants-loss of habitat.
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Sum up electric bateries.
No exhaust gases, plug in to recharge. But electricity made by fossil fuels, just moving pollution somewhere else.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the second phase of the atmosphere?

Back

Green plants evolved,lot of carbon dioxide dissolved in oceans, plants removed carbon dioxide,produced oxygen by photosynthesis.Carbon dioxide became locked up in sedimentary rocks as fossil fuels and insoluble carbonates.

Card 3

Front

What was the third phase of the atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the percentages of the three main gases in the air?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are five pollutants?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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