C1 - Air Quality

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What are the percentages of the gases in the atmosphere?
78% NItrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Argon, 0.04% Carbon Dioxide
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What are the effects of carbon particulates?
They make buildings dirty and affect the lungs
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How is carbon monoxide harmful to humans?
It is toxic and, if breathed in, can cause death.
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What was the early atmosphere like?
The atmosphere of the early Earth was largely made up of carbon dioxide and water vapour, probably coming from volcanoes. When the Earth cooled the water vapour condensed to form the oceans.
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What evidence do scientists have about the early atmosphere?
Some fossils suggest early organisms underwent the process of photosynthesis, using the carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. This meant carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere went down and oxygen levels went up.
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What is the conservation of atoms?
As a chemical reaction takes place, atoms in the reactants are rearranged to make the products. No atoms are added or taken away.
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What is a reduction reaction?
When oxygen is removed from a chemical
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How is sulfur dioxide produced and does it cause harm?
Many fuels contain small amounts of sulfur compounds. When these fuels are burned sulfur dioxide is released into the air. Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain that can damage buildings and kill plants.
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What happens if incomplete combustion takes place?
If there is not enough oxygen present to burn the fuels completely, incomplete combustion takes place. Carbon monoxide, a very poisonous gas, is formed. Carbon particulates are also formed.
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How is nitrogen monoxide produced?
When fuels are burned in vehicle engines, high temperatures are reached. At these high temperatures nitrogen and oxygen from the air combine to produce nitrogen monoxide.
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How is nitrogen dioxide produced?
When this nitrogen monoxide is released from vehicle exhaust systems, it combines with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen dioxide.
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What is wet scrubbing?
VWet scrubbing involves the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases before it escapes from the power station chimney.
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What is one method of wet scrubbing?
spraying the flue gases with seawater droplets (naturally alkaline) which react with the sulfur dioxide
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What is another method of wet scrubbing?
using powdered lime mixed with water to form an alkaline slurry. When mixed with air and sprayed with the slurry the sulfur dioxide in the flue gases reacts and forms solid calcium sulphate. This solid is removed allowing cleaned gases to escape
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How are solid particulates stopped from being released into the atmosphere?
Coal-powered stations give off solid particulates. These can also be removed from the flue gases. Waste gases pass through an electrostatic precipitator allowing particulates to be collected and removed.
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What do catalytic converters do?
Convert nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen and oxygen, and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the effects of carbon particulates?

Back

They make buildings dirty and affect the lungs

Card 3

Front

How is carbon monoxide harmful to humans?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the early atmosphere like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What evidence do scientists have about the early atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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