C1

HideShow resource information
What is the general formula for an alkane?
CnH2n+2
1 of 51
What is the general formula for an alkene?
CnH2n
2 of 51
Is an alkane saturated or unsaturated? Why?
Saturated as it only contains single covalent bonds.
3 of 51
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon.
4 of 51
What is a covalent bond?
A shared pair of electrons.
5 of 51
How do you test for an alkene? What results would you expect?
Bromine water test. If an alkene is present, a reaction takes place and there is a colour change of orange to colourless.
6 of 51
What is a non-renewable energy source?
A resource that cannot be replace and is finite (will eventually run out).
7 of 51
What are the properties of small hydrocarbons?
Low boiling points, very voliatile, flow easily, ignite easily.
8 of 51
What are the properties of large hydrocarbons?
high boiling points, aren't voliatile, don't flow easily, don't ignite easily.
9 of 51
Where do hydrocarbons with low boiling points exit the fractional distillation tower? Give an example.
At the top e.g. bottled gas or fuel for cars.
10 of 51
Where do hydrocarbons with high boiling points exit the fractional distillation tower? Give an example.
At the bottom e.g. bitumen or fuel for ships and power stations.
11 of 51
What are hydrocarbons held together by?
Intermolecular forces.
12 of 51
What is complete combustion? Give the word equation.
When a fuel burns with plenty of oxygen. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water.
13 of 51
What is incomplete combustion? Give the word equation.
When a fuel burns in a limited supply of oxygen. Hydrocarbon + Oxygen → Carbon Monoxide + Carbon + Water.
14 of 51
What is cracking? What type of reaction is it?
Cracking converts long alkane molecules into shorter alkane and alkene molecules, which are more useful. It is a thermal decomposition reaction.
15 of 51
What are fossil fuels? Give examples.
Formed millions of years ago from the remains of dead organisms. E.g. crude oil, coal, gas.
16 of 51
What are the problems with exploiting oil?
Can damage the environment e.g. through oil spills, oil slicks travel across the sea, beaches and wildlife are harmed as they are coated in oil.
17 of 51
What are the different percentages of elements in the air?
78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.035% carbon dioxide.
18 of 51
What are the four places that carbon is found in the carbon cycle?
carbon dioxide in the air, carbon compounds in the air, carbon compounds in animals, carbon compounds in fossil fuels.
19 of 51
What processes are involved in the carbon cycle?
Respiration, photosynthesis, fossil fuel formation, feeding, combustion.
20 of 51
What are catalytic convertors and where are they put?
They are put on car exhausts to convert the poisonous gases into more environmentally friendly gases.
21 of 51
What is the word and symbol equation for a catalytic convertor?
Carbon Monoxide + Nitrogen Oxides → Carbon Dioxide + Nitrogen (2CO + 2NO → 2CO2 + N2).
22 of 51
What is a polymer?
A plastic made up of a chain of monomers.
23 of 51
What is addition polymerisation?
The chemical reaction that produces polymer molecules from monomer molecules.
24 of 51
What are the conditions needed for polymerisation?
A catalyst and high pressure.
25 of 51
What are the properties of thermoplastic polymers?
Can stretch or bend, softens and melts when heated, can be re-moulded, no cross links between molecules.
26 of 51
What are the properties of thermosetting polymers?
They are rigid (break when bent), chars and decomposes when heated, cannot be re-moulded, has cross links between molecules.
27 of 51
Define waterproof.
The material is able to resist water, it doesn't allow any water to pass through it.
28 of 51
What are the properties of Nylon? What happens when you sweat while wearing it?
Waterproof, tough, lightweight and blocks UV light. When you sweat, the water vapour condenses inside, making you feel cold and damp.
29 of 51
What are the properties of Gore-Tex? What happens when you sweat while wearing it?
Has similar properties to nylon but it is a breathable material. When you sweat, water vapour can escape but rainwater cannot penerate it.
30 of 51
What are the problems with polymers?
Unreactive so are not bio-degradable, fill up landfill sites, toxic gases are produced when burnt, recycling is expensive, time consuming and requires skilled workers.
31 of 51
What happens to potatoes when they are cooked?
the starch grains swell up and spread out, the cell walls rupture, resulting in the loss of rigid structure and a softer texture.
32 of 51
What happens to proteins when they are cooked?
They change shape permenantly; this is called denaturing.
33 of 51
What is the word and symbol equation for the decomposition of baking powder (sodium hydrogencarbonate)?
Sodium Hydrogencarbonate → Sodium Carbonate + Carbon Dioxide + Water (2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O).
34 of 51
Why are antioxidants added to foods? Give an example.
To stop food reacting with oxygen and going off e.g. vitamin C.
35 of 51
Why are emulsifiers added to foods? Give an example.
To stop oil and water from separating e.g. egg yolk (lecithin).
36 of 51
Describe how emulsifiers work.
Have a hydrophilic (water loving) head and a hydrophobic (water hating) tail. Head bonds with the water and the tail bonds with the water.
37 of 51
What are the properties that perfume must have and why?
Evaporate easily so perfume particles will reach the nose, be non-toxic, unreactive with water so it doesn't react with perspiration, doesn't irritate skin, insoluable in water so it doesn't wash off easily.
38 of 51
Are the molecules in perfumes strong or weak?
Have weak forces of attraction so are very volatile.
39 of 51
What are esters and where can they be found?
They are chemicals which have pleasant smells. They are normally found in fruit but can also be made in a lab.
40 of 51
What is the word equation for an ester?
Acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water.
41 of 51
Why is nail varnish insoluable in water?
The attraction between the nail varnish particles and that of the water particles is stronger than the attraction between nail varnish and water particles.
42 of 51
What are the advantages of animal testing?
Helps to discover new medicines to improve the health of humans and other animals, check the safety of new medicines.
43 of 51
What are the disadvantages of animal testing?
It is morally wrong, it is expensive to look after the animals being tested on.
44 of 51
What are the three main ingredients of paint and their functions?
Pigments (to give the paint colour), binding medium (to stick the paint to the surface being painted) and a solvent (thins the paint so that it spreads more easily).
45 of 51
How does emulsion paint dry?
Water evaporates, oil droplets spead out and join up, oil forms a protective skin.
46 of 51
How does oil paint dry?
Solvent evaporates, oil is oxidised by oxygen to form a tough, protective layer.
47 of 51
What is a colloid?
A mixture of of tiny particles of one substance dispersed within another.
48 of 51
How do thermochromic pigments work and what are they an example of?
They change colour depending on how hot or cold it is. They are an example of a smart paint. They are useful for babies spoons.
49 of 51
How do phosphorescent pigments work?
They absorb light energy and store it, and then release the energy over a period of time, meaning the paint can be seen in the dark (without electricity).
50 of 51
What is radium paint and why was it banned?
It is a radioactive paint that glows when applied. It was banned because scientists discovered that it can cause harm to body cells and may cause cancer.
51 of 51

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the general formula for an alkene?

Back

CnH2n

Card 3

Front

Is an alkane saturated or unsaturated? Why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a hydrocarbon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a covalent bond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all C1 resources »