HideShow resource information
  • Created by: dkoning00
  • Created on: 02-05-16 12:26
What three particles are atoms made of and what are their charges?
Proton - positive, Neutron - no charge, Electron - negative
1 of 100
What is the displayed formulae for the following: Carbon Dioxide
2 of 100
3 of 100
4 of 100
5 of 100
Carbon Monoxide
6 of 100
Hydrochloric acid
7 of 100
Calcium chloride
8 of 100
Magnesium chloride
9 of 100
Sodium carbonate
10 of 100
Calcium carbonate
11 of 100
Sulfuric acid
12 of 100
Magnesium sulfate
13 of 100
What are emulsifiers used for?
Mixing oil and water in foods
14 of 100
Describe the features of an emulsifier molecule and how they work
Hydrophilic head binds to water molecules and hydrophobic tail binds to oil molecules to fix the two together
15 of 100
Why are some foods cooked?
To change the chemical state in order to improve taste, texture, digestibility etc.
16 of 100
What happens to protein molecules when they are cooked?
They denature and change shape which is irreversible
17 of 100
What kind of chemical change does baking powder undergo during cooking?
Thermal decomposition
18 of 100
Give the word equation for this process
Sodium hydrogencarbonate --> Sodium carbonate + Carbon dioxide +Water
19 of 100
And the symbol equaion
2NaHCO3 --> Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O
20 of 100
Which of the products makes a cake rise? How?
Carbon dioxide forms bubble in the cake expanding the substance
21 of 100
How could you prove that the gas released by thermal decomposition of baking powder is Carbon dioxide?
Heat some NaHCO3 and use a tube to bubble the gas produced through lime water. If it turns cloudy it's CO2
22 of 100
What component of a perfume gives it its specific properties?
An ester
23 of 100
What properties must a perfume have?
High volatility, non-irritant, insoluble in water, non-toxic and doesn't react with water
24 of 100
What is needed for esterification?
A Carboxylic acid and an alcohol plus an acid catalyst (usually concentrated Sulfuric acid)
25 of 100
What are the products of Esterification?
Ester and water
26 of 100
Why are perfumes and cosmetics tested on animals and why is it controversial?
To make sure they're safe for human use. Some argue that it is cruel and unnecessary
27 of 100
Why do substances change state when heated?
Particles gain kinetic energy and overcome the intermolecular forces between them so they start to move around more changing the state
28 of 100
How do we smell things and why are some substances more potent than others?
Fast moving particles near the surface of liquids can overcome attractions and leave the substance, these reach receptors in the nose and so we smell it. Some substances' particles have weaker forces and so overcome them more quickly - more volatile.
29 of 100
What is a solution?
Mixture of a solute and a solvent that doesn't separate out
30 of 100
What is a solute?
The substance being dissolved
31 of 100
The liquid it's dissolving into
32 of 100
Means something will dissolve (not necessarily in water)
33 of 100
Will not dissolve at all
34 of 100
A measure of how much it will dissolve and how easily
35 of 100
Why is nail varnish insoluble in water?
Because the attraction between nail varnish molecules are stronger than the attractions between a nail varnish and a water molecule so they never bond with each other
36 of 100
Why is nail varnish soluble in acetone?
Because the attractions between the molecules of the two substances are stronger than the ones holding them together
37 of 100
What does the solubility of a substance depend on?
The solvent
38 of 100
What gives a paint its colour?
The pigment
39 of 100
What is a colloid?
Tiny particles dispersed in a substance so they don't settle but are not dissolved in it
40 of 100
What are the components of an emulsion paint?
Water (solvent), pigment and binding medium
41 of 100
How does emulsion paint dry?
The water solvent evaporates leaving the binding medium and pigment behind as a solid layer
42 of 100
Why are emulsions suitable for painting walls indoors?
Because they don't give off harmful fumes and are fast-drying
43 of 100
What are the components of a gloss paint?
Organic compound that disolves oil (solvent), oil (binding medium) and pigment
44 of 100
How do oil-based paints dry?
The solvent evaporates leaving the oil to be oxidised by the air turning it into a solid layer with the pigment. This means it takes longer to dry
45 of 100
What makes oil-based paints more suitable for outdoor use?
When dry, they are glossy, waterproof and hard-wearing and also they can produce harmful fumes depending on the solvent
46 of 100
What is a thermochromic pigment?
A paint that changes colour depending on the temperature
47 of 100
List three uses of thermochromic pigments
Baby utensils (to indicate when food is the right temperature), kettles and novelty items
48 of 100
What is a phosphorescent pigment?
Pigment that absorbs light, stores it and then emits it back out as light energy over a period of time
49 of 100
List three uses of phosphorescent pigments
Emergency lighting, glow in the dark watch hands and novelty items
50 of 100
Why are phosphorescent pigments used in watches today instead of previous methods?
Radioactive paints used to be used as they glowed constantly without needing light input but they were found to be unsafe so phosphorescents are now used
51 of 100
What is a monomer?
Single, small, unsaturated molecules
52 of 100
What is a polymer?
A chain of monomers joined together to form one long saturated molecule
53 of 100
What conditions are necessary for polymerisation?
High pressure and a catalyst
54 of 100
How do monomers form polymers in addition polymerisation?
The double covalent bonds break and join together to string the molecules together
55 of 100
What polymer is made from Chloroethene?
56 of 100
What dictates the properties of a polymer?
The intermolecular forces between the polymer chains
57 of 100
What properties will a plastic with strong intermolecular forces have?
High melting point, durable, rigid
58 of 100
What properties will a plastic with weak intermolecular forces have?
Low melting point, 'stretchy', weak
59 of 100
Why does it have these properties?
The polymer chains can slide over each other
60 of 100
What is low density polyethene commonly used for?
Plastic bags
61 of 100
Nylon is a synthetic polymer used often in clothes, is it waterproof?
No, not on its own
62 of 100
What is it coated with to make it waterproof?
63 of 100
What advantage does GoreTex have over traditional waterproof clothing?
It lets water vapour out so sweat doesn't build up
64 of 100
Why are plastics difficult to dispose of?
Most of them aren't biodegradable
65 of 100
Define a hydrocarbon
A compound that contains hydrogen and carbon atoms ONLY
66 of 100
List three commercially used hydrocarbons
Petrol, diesel, ethane, propane etc.
67 of 100
How are atoms bonded in molecules?
Covalent bonds - atoms share electrons to complete their outer shells
68 of 100
What is the difference between a double and single covalent bond?
In a double bond two electrons from each atom are shared, only one form each is shared in a single bond
69 of 100
Alkanes have what kind of covalent bonds between their carbon atoms?
Single - this makes them saturated
70 of 100
And alkenes
Double - this makes them unsaturated
71 of 100
How can you test if a substance is an alkene?
Add bromine water - if it is an alkene the double bond breaks and the bromine attaches (addition reaction) which turns the liquid colourless
72 of 100
What is the generic formula for an alkane?
73 of 100
What is the generic formula for an alkene?
74 of 100
Why do we heat crude oil in a fractional distillating column?
To separate all the different hydrocarbons into fractions that can be used for different purposes
75 of 100
How are the fractions separated?
The column is heated form the bottom where the crude oil is put in. The different hydrocarbons have different intermolecualr forces due to size and so smaller molecules have lower boiling points. They evaporate and rise up the column, and exit
76 of 100
Why do they exit at different places?
When the temperature is low enough for them to condense, they flow out. So smaller molecules come out the top.
77 of 100
List the fractions (top to bottom) that exit the column
LPG, Petrol, Naptha, Kerosene, Diesel, Oil and Bitumen
78 of 100
What properties do longer chain hydrocarbons have?
Higher melting point, less flammable, more viscous and less volatile
79 of 100
What is Cracking?
Breaking large alkanes into smaller alkanes and an alkene
80 of 100
Why is it done?
We don't get enough highly used hydrocarbons (like petrol) from fractional distillation but we get more of some (like bitumen) l]than we need. Cracking makes more of the useful stuff
81 of 100
What conditions are needed for cracking?
High temperature (400 to 700 degrees Celsius) and a catalyst (Aluminium oxide powder)
82 of 100
What political problems can oil cause?
Some countries could stockpile it to increase its value, when oil reserves start to run out we may have to reply on politically unstable countries for oil and terrorists can gain control of oil reserves
83 of 100
What environmental problems can oil cause?
Oil spills damage sea-life as can the detergents used to get rid of them and oil can cover birds feathers
84 of 100
List as many properites to consider when choosing the best fuel
Energy value/efficiency, availability, storage, cost, toxicity, ease of use, pollution
85 of 100
What are the products of the complete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
Carbon dioxide and water (+energy)
86 of 100
How can you test this?
Burn a hydrocarbon and draw the gases through a tube with a water pump. Surround one point of the tube with ice to condensate water and then bubble the gas through limewater to test for CO2
87 of 100
What are the products of the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
Carbon dioxide + Water +Carbon monoxide (+energy)
88 of 100
Why is incomplete combustion more dangerous and messy?
Carbon monoxide poisoning can be fatal and soot builds up
89 of 100
What was the first phase of atmospheric evolution?
Volcanoes releasing CO2 and steam
90 of 100
What was the second phase?
Green plants evolve and produce oxygen as the CO2 is taken out of the atmosphere and put into sedimentary rocks. N2 is also put into the air by ammonia reacting with oxygen and denitrifying bacteria breaking down nitrates
91 of 100
And the third?
The Ozone layer formed as oxygen was bonded with itself by UV rays which blocked out dangerous rays allowing life to thrive
92 of 100
Name the gases in the atmosphere and their amounts
Nitrogen (78%), Oxygen (21%) and Carbon dioxide (0.035%). There are also varying levels of water vapour and noble gases
93 of 100
In the Carbon Cycle, what four processes put CO2 back into the atmosphere?
Respiration, decay, combustion and thermal decomposition of sedimentary rocks (chalk and limestone)
94 of 100
What takes CO2 out of the atmosphere?
95 of 100
How have humans affected the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere?
More people means more respiration and more resources being used such as burning fossil fuels. All of which puts CO2 into the atmosphere
96 of 100
What causes acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen in the air produced by burning fossil fuels mix with clouds and fall as acidic rain
97 of 100
What negative effects does acid rain have?
Water sources can become acidic and kill water-life, trees die, stone buildings and statues are destroyed and metal corrodes
98 of 100
How do catalytic converters in cars help reduce air pollution?
A mixture of platinum and rhodium turns Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxide into Nitrogen and Carbon dioxide
99 of 100
Give the balanced symbol equation for this process
2CO + 2NO --> N2 + 2CO2
100 of 100

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the displayed formulae for the following: Carbon Dioxide



Card 3




Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Atoms and compounds resources »