C1

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  • Created by: jp3louis
  • Created on: 24-04-16 18:21
A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called an element.
Charges: Proton +1 Neutron 0 Electron –1
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Candidates should understand where metals and non-metals appear in the periodic table.
Knowledge of the chemical symbols for elements other than those named in the specification is not required
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the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus.
Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy leve
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Candidates will be expected to calculate the number of each sub-atomic particle in an atom from its atomic number and mass number.
Candidates should be able to represent the electronic structure of the first 20 elements in the following forms: sodium 2,8,1
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The elements in Group 0 are called the noble gases. They are unreactive because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons.
When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons to form ions or molecules. Compounds formed from metals and non-metals consist of ions.
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Candidates should know that metals lose electrons to form positive ions, whereas non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions.
Candidates should know that the noble gases have eight electrons in their outer energy level, except for helium, which has only two electrons.
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candidates should be able to calculate the mass of a reactant or product from information about the masses of the other reactants and products in the reaction.
Candidates should be able to write and be able to balance symbol equations.
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No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants.
consider and evaluate the environmental, social and economic effects of exploiting limestone and producing building materials from it
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Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ), is quarried and can be used as a building material.
Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
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Candidates should be familiar with using limewater to test for carbon dioxide gas.
Candidates should be aware that not all carbonates of metals in Group 1 of the periodic table decompose at the temperatures reached by a Bunsen burner
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Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids.
A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy.
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Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain.
Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete.
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Candidates should know that metal ores are obtained by mining and that this may involve digging up and processing large amounts of rock.
Candidates should know and understand that phytomining uses plants to absorb metal compounds and that the plants are burned to produce ash that contains the metal compounds. Bioleaching uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that uses metal comp
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Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal. The economics of extraction may change over time.
Ores are mined and may be concentrated before the metal is extracted and purified.
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Metals that are less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon, for example iron oxide is reduced in the blast furnace to make iron.
Copper can be extracted from copper-rich ores by heating the ores in a furnace (smelting). The copper can be purified by electrolysis. The supply of copper-rich ores is limited.
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Copper can be obtained from solutions of copper salts by electrolysis or by displacement using scrap iron.
Aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon. Current methods of extraction are expensive because: ■ there are many stages in the processes ■ large amounts of energy are needed
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We should recycle metals because extracting them uses limited resources and is expensive in terms of energy and effects on the environment.
Iron from the blast furnace contains about 96% iron. The impurities make it brittle and so it has limited uses
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Most iron is converted into steels. Steels are alloys since they are mixtures of iron with carbon.
Low-carbon steels are easily shaped, high-carbon steels are hard, and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion.
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Most metals in everyday use are alloys. Pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium are too soft for many uses and so are mixed with small amounts of similar metals to make them harder for everyday use.
The elements in the central block of the periodic table are known as transition metals. Like other metals they are good conductors of heat and electricity and can be bent or hammered into shape.
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Copper has properties that make it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing.
Low density and resistance to corrosion make aluminium and titanium useful metals.
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Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds.
A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together.
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Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula CnH2n+2
Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: ■ C2H6 or H-C-C-H
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Knowledge of the chemical symbols for elements other than those named in the specification is not required

Back

Candidates should understand where metals and non-metals appear in the periodic table.

Card 3

Front

Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy leve

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Candidates should be able to represent the electronic structure of the first 20 elements in the following forms: sodium 2,8,1

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons to form ions or molecules. Compounds formed from metals and non-metals consist of ions.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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