C1 7.1 to C1 7.6

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  • Created by: ja7sa096
  • Created on: 24-04-16 08:53
Label the structure of the Earth fro the inside out.
Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust, atmosphere
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Give the properties of the parts of the structure of the Earth.
Made from solid nickel and iron, made from liquid nickel and iron, properties of a solid but can flow slowly, relatively thin and rocky
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Who proposed the correct theory of continental drift and the formation of mountains?
Alfred Wegener
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How did people think mountains were formed before Wegener's theory?
Mountains formed because the Earth was cooling down, and as it cooled, it contracted, making wrinkles (mountains) on the Earth's crust
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Why was the theory before Wegener's not true?
Because the mountains would have to be evenly spread over the Earth's surface, which they were not
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What was Wegener's theory for mountains?
Mountains formed when the edge of a drifting continent collided with another, causing it to crumple and fold. For example, the Himalayas formed when India came into contact with Asia.
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What was Wegener's theory for continental drift?
Around 2 million years ago the continents all merged onto one supercontinent, the continents separated and moved apart to form the continents today
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What are tectonic plates?
Large broken pieces of the Earth's crust and upper part of the mantle
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Why did the continents move apart?
Because of the tectonic plates
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How do convection currents work?
Radioactive atoms decay, producing big amounts of energy, heats up molten minerals in mantle which expand, become less dense and rise to surface, cooler material sinks to take their place
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Why do tectonic plates move?
Because of convection currents
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Where do earthquakes and volcanoes happen?
At the tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates meet
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Why is it difficult to predict accurately where and when earthquakes will happen?
Because we do not know when the plates may slip past each other
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How was the Earth's early atmosphere formed?
By volcanic activity
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What did the Earth's early atmosphere consist of?
Mainly carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, traces of methane and ammonia (hardly any oxygen)
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How was oxygen produced in the atmosphere?
Bacteria evolved and used photosynthesis to breathe in carbon dioxide and water and produce sugar and oxygen, more and more plants evolved, oxygen in atmosphere increased, life evolved
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What does the Miller-Urey experiment state?
The compounds needed for life on Earth came from reactions involving hydrocarbons, such as methane and ammonia, the energy required for the reaction could have been provided by lightning, found 11 different amino acids- possible for life
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What are other theories apart from the Miller-Urey experiment?
Meteors with 70 different amino acids, deep under the oceans near to volcanic events (primoridial soup), extraterrestrial seeding
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What is a primordial soup?
A solution rich in organic compounds in the primitive oceans of the earth, from which life is thought to have originated.
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Where did all the carbon dioxide from the Earth's early atmosphere go?
Taken up by plants during photosynthesis, animals eat the plants, locked up into sedimentary rocks, absorbed by the oceans
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How was ammonia and methane removed from the earth's early atmosphere?
Reacted with the oxygen formed by the plants
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List the gases in the atmosphere from highest to lowest.
Nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, traces of other gases
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How do we separate gases in the air?
Fractional distillation
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What do we have to do to the gases before distilling them?
Liquefy them by making the temperature below -200 degrees Celsisus
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What happens to the gases as the air liquefies?
Water vapour condenses and is removed using absorbent filters, carbon dioxide freezes at -79 and is removed, oxygen liquefies at -183 and nitrogen liquefies at -196
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What two gases are then fractionally distilled?
Liquid nitrogen and oxygen
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What happens in the fractionating column?
The liquefied air is passed into the bottom of the fractionating column and the nitrogen boils off first at -196 and then is collected as a gas whereas the oxygen stays liquefied at the bottom
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What is the nitrogen used for?
Stop food going off, oil tankers to reduce explosion risk, ammonia for fertilisers
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What is the oxygen used for?
To help people breathe, to help things react, high temperature welding and steel making
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Why has the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere recently increased?
We are burning more fossil fuels
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Why is it bad that there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?
Global warming, seas cannot cope, coral reefs are dying in the more acidic conditions, global weather patterns change, polar ice caps melt
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give the properties of the parts of the structure of the Earth.

Back

Made from solid nickel and iron, made from liquid nickel and iron, properties of a solid but can flow slowly, relatively thin and rocky

Card 3

Front

Who proposed the correct theory of continental drift and the formation of mountains?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did people think mountains were formed before Wegener's theory?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was the theory before Wegener's not true?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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