C1

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  • Created by: Faith16
  • Created on: 24-03-16 14:09
What was phase 1 of the earth like?
Molten for millions of years until it cooled down a bit forming a thin crust but volcanoes kept erupting. The volcanoes gave out lots of gases including carbon dioxide, water vapour and nitrogen. No oxygen
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How where oceans formed in phase 1?
When the water vapour condensed when the Earth cooled down
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What was phase 2 of the earth like?
Green plants evolved and a lot of the early carbon dioxide dissolved into the ocean or removed by the green plants to create oxygen. When the plants died they were buried under sediment so the carbon dioxide within them was in sedimentary rocks.
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In phase 2 what was the carbon kept as in the sedimentary rocks?
Insoluble carbonates and fossil fuel.
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What was phase 3 of the earth like?
Build up of oxygen in the atmosphere killed off some organisms that couldn't tolerate it but allowed more complex organisms to evolve. Virtually no carbon dioxide left now.
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What is the atmosphere made of and what percentages?
Nitrogen- 78% Oxygen- 21% and Argon- 1%
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How are humans changing the atmosphere?
By adding small amounts of pollutants to the air.
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What are the five different pollutants?
Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
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What are the chemicals called at the start and at the end of an reaction?
Start- reactants End- products
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What happens when atoms rearrange themselves?
They have different properties e.g. coal is a black solid and oxygen is a colourless gas but when reacted together (coal burning) they produce a colourless gas carbon dioxide which is heavier than oxygen and can be toxic
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What do fossil fuels contain and what are the called?
Hydrogen and Carbon - Hydrocarbons
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Give some examples of hydrocarbons.
Petrol, diesel fuel and fuel oil
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What is burning also known as?
Combustion
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What happens when a hydrocarbon burns?
Hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen to make water (oxidisation) and the carbon atoms combine with the oxygen in the air to make carbon dioxide
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What is the difference between burning with oxygen in the air and pure oxygen?
Pure oxygen causes things to burn more rapidly.
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What happens when you burn carbon with little oxygen?
Carbon monoxide is formed.
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How is carbon dioxide removed from the atmosphere?
By plants during photosynthesis and it dissolves in rainwater and in seas, lakes and rivers
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What does the increase in carbon dioxide cause?
Green house effect- warming the Earth causing problems such as rising sea level.
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What is it called when carbon does not have enough oxygen to burn?
Incomplete burning
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What can carbon monoxide cause?
Its toxic so if breathed in it can cause you to be drowsy and have a headache and can eventually kill
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What is particulate carbon?
Tiny particles of carbon that are produced when fuels burn incompletely.
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What does particulate carbon do in the atmosphere?
Just floats around then comes back down to the ground as soot making buildings look dirty.
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What does sulphur come from?
Impurities in fuel (from the Earths crust)
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What happens when sulphur burns?
It combines with the oxygen to create sulfur dioxide
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What does sulphur cause in the atmosphere?
Acid rain (reacts with the moisture in clouds so dilute sulphuric acid is formed)
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What does acid rain do?
Causes lakes to become acidic killing plants and animals, kills tree, damages buildings and causes erosion with statues that are made from some types of stone e.g. limestone
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How is nitrogen pollution caused?
Due to the high temperatures of the burning causing nitrogen in the air to react with oxygen in the air to produce nitrogen oxides (monoxide and dioxide)
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Where does nitrogen pollution forming happen?
In car engines
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How is nitrogen monoxide and dioxide made?
Monoxide is made by nitrogen and oxygen react due to high temperature then nitrogen dioxide is formed when nitrogen monoxide reacts with more oxygen in the air
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What does nitrogen oxides form?
Acid rain- reacts with the moister in the clouds to create dilute nitric acid.
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How can we reduce pollution?
Using less electricity, take public transport or do car shares or ride a bike
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What is wet scrubbing?
When sulphur dioxide is removed from flue gases by reacting them with alkali.
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What are the two different types of wet scrubbing?
With seawater sulphur dissolved (produces carbon dioxide, water and dissolved sulphate) and with a alkaline slurry sprayed onto the gases sulphur reacts e.g. calcium oxide in water (produces calcium sulphite) sprayed
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What are catalytic converters?
They convert nitrogen monoxide into nitrogen and oxygen (reduction) and they add oxygen to carbon monoxide to create carbon dioxide (oxidation)
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What are cars emissions checked by once a year?
MOT test
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How else can we power cars?
With biofuels (made from plants and waste but causes species to lose natural habitats, only produce carbon dioxide and water -carbon neutral) or electric batteries (don't get rid of pollution as you need electricity to recharge the car)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How where oceans formed in phase 1?

Back

When the water vapour condensed when the Earth cooled down

Card 3

Front

What was phase 2 of the earth like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In phase 2 what was the carbon kept as in the sedimentary rocks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was phase 3 of the earth like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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