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3 types of fossil fuels?
Crude oil, coal and natural gas
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Properties of fossil fuels?
Formed naturally over millions of years - Finite and non renewable as they are used up faster then they can be formed - Easily extracted
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What happens when oil slicks occur?
It can harm wildlife and damage beaches - Birds feathers get stuck together and the birds could die
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What is used to break up oil slicks?
Detergents (toxic and can kill wildlife)
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What is crude oil a mixture of?
Hydrocarbons (only contains hydrogen and carbon atoms)
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What is fractional distillation?
Separating crude oil into a number of different parts, according to their boiling points. Fractions with low boiling points leave at the top and fractions with high boiling points leave at the bottom of the fractionating column.
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What is cracking?
The process of breaking big alkane molecules down into smaller, more useful alkane and alkene molecules. It's an example of a thermal decomposition reaction.
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Features of hydrocarbon molecules?
Strong covalent bonds between the atoms in the molecule - Weak intermolecular forces - Small molecules have weak forces of attraction between them while bigger molecules have stronger forces of attraction
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What is combustion?
When fuels react with oxygen, they burn and release useful useful heat energy. It produces CO2 and H2O. A clean blue flame shows complete combustion is taking place.
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What is incomplete combustion?
When fuels burn without enough oxygen, only some heat energy is released. It produces Carbon Monoxide(2CO) and H2O. A yellow flame that produces a lot of soot shows that incomplete combustion is taking place.
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7 things to think about when choosing a fuel?
Energy value - Availability - Ease of storage - Cost - Toxicity - Pollution - Ease of use
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What 3 gases does clean air contain?
78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen and 1% Other gases
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What are the levels of gas in the atmosphere maintained by?
Respiration, combustion and photosynthesis
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What gases did the earliest atmosphere contain?
Ammonia and carbon dioxide - they came from inside the earth and were released through volcanoes
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What harmful gases is polluting the air due to human actions?
Sulfur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and Oxides of Nitrogen
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3 key factors that affect how much carbon dioxide there is on earth?
Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and increasing population
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Properties of fossil fuels?

Back

Formed naturally over millions of years - Finite and non renewable as they are used up faster then they can be formed - Easily extracted

Card 3

Front

What happens when oil slicks occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is used to break up oil slicks?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is crude oil a mixture of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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