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a molecule has the molecular formular CH3(CH2)4CH3. How many H ans C atoms does it contain?
14H and 6C
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what is the symbol equation for magnesium reacting with oxygen
M+O2 --> MO2
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what does hydrophobic mean, and which end of the emulsifier is the hydrophobic end?
likes water, hates oil. the tale (zig-zag) is the hydrophobic end.
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what does the hydrophobic end of an emulsifier do?
bonds to the water molecules.
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what does hydrophillic mean and which end of the emulsifier is the hydrophilic end?
likes oil, hates water. the circle head is the hydrophilic end.
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who does the hydrophilic end of an emulsifier do?
bonds to the oil molecules.
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How does an emulsifier work?
the oil forms droplets when the emulsifier is added, and the emulsifier molecule sorts itself out. The hydrophilic ends of the emulsifier repells other oil droplets, whilst water molecules latch on. so the emulsion wont seperate out.
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Why do some foods need to be cooked?
To give a better taste/texture, to make the food easier to digest, to get rid of bad microbes, to ensure they arn't poisonous.
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What happens to baking powder when heated?
it undergoes thermal decomposition
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what is thermal decomposition?
when a substance breaks down into simplier substances when heated.
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what is the word equation for the thermal decomposition of baking powder?
Sodium hydrogencarbonate --> sodium carbonate + carbon dioxide + water
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what is the symbol equation for the thermal decomposition of baking powder?
2NaHCO2 --> Na2CO3 + CO2 +H2O
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how can you detect if caerbon dioxide is present?
using lime water, which turns cloudy when CO2 is present.
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how can you make an ester?
mix together the acid and the alcohol, and war, gently for about 5 minutes.
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what is the formular for esterfication?
Acid + Alcohol --> Ester + water
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what properties do all perfumes need?
easily evapourates, non toxic, doesnt react with water, doesnt irritate the skin, insoluble in water.
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what is a solution?
a mictures of a solute and a solvent that doesnt seperate out.
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what is a solute?
the substance being dissolved.
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what is a solvent?
the liquid a solute is dissolving into.
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what does soluble mean?
something will dissolve.
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what does insoluble mean?
something will not dissolve.
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what does solubility mean?
a meanure of how much will dissolve.
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why doesnt nail varnish dissolve in water?
the two subsatnces are more attracted to themselves than eachother, they dont form a solution.
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why is nail varnish soluble in acetone?
the attraction between nail varnish and acetone molecules is stronger than the attractions holding the two substances together.
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Give examples of solvents
Water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichlotomethane
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what are pigements used for?
they give paints their colour
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what are water based paints used for and why?
they are used for inside walls because they are fast drying and dont produce
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what are oil based paints used for and why?
they are used for outside doors and metal work because they are water proof, hard-wearing and produce harmful fumes.
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What are thermochromic pigments?
Pigments which change colour or become transparent when heated.
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Give examples of products that use thermochromic pigments.
Electric kettles that change colour when water is boiled, baby spoons or toys, which change colour when the food or toy is too hot.
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How do phosphoric pigments work?
They glow in the dark by absorbiong and storing the energy from natural or artifical light. The energy is then released as light energy over a period of time.
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How are polymers formed?
When lots of small chained molecules called monomers join together.
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What are addition polymers made from?
They are made from unsaturated monomers.
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What are strong, rigid polymers used for? Name the polymer.
They are used fr plastic milk bottles, and are usually high density polyethene.
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What are light, stretchable polymers used for? Name the polymer.
They are used for plastic bags and squeezy bottles, and are usually low density polyethene.
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Why cant you burn plastics to dispose of them?
Because when burnt, some plastics release gases such as acidic sulfur dioxide, and poisonous hydrogen chloride.
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound only containing hydrogen and carbon.
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Name some alkanes.
Methane, ethane, propane, butane.
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What is an alkane?
An alkane is a hydrocarbon with single C-C bonds.
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What is an alkene?
An alkene is a hydrocarbon with double C=C bonds.
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How can you test for an alkene?
React it with bromine water, and if an alkene is present, the bromine water will turn colourless.
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What is produced from top to bottom in the cruse oil fractions, and how many hydrocarbons does each product have?
Bitumen (70+), Oil (40), Diesel (20), Paraffin (15), Naphtha (10), petrol (8), lpg (3)
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What happens as the size of hydrocarbon moneluces increase?
The boiling point increases, it gets less flamible, it gets more vicsous, it gets less volitile.
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What does cracking do?
It splits longer hydrocarbons into smaller hydrocarbons.
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What conditions does cracking need to work?
It needs to be hot, and it needs a catalyst.
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Why is cracking important?
It helps to supply the amount of product if it is in high demand and there isnt enough of it.
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What should you look for when choosing the best fuel?
Energy value, availability,storage, cost, toxicity, ease of use, pollution.
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What are the 3 phases for the evolution of the atmosphere?
The volcanoes let out steam and CO2, green plants evolved and produced Oxygen, ozone layer allows evolution of complex animals.
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What is acid rain?
Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.
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Card 2

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what is the symbol equation for magnesium reacting with oxygen

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M+O2 --> MO2

Card 3

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what does hydrophobic mean, and which end of the emulsifier is the hydrophobic end?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what does the hydrophobic end of an emulsifier do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what does hydrophillic mean and which end of the emulsifier is the hydrophilic end?

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