C1 4.1 to C1 4.5

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What is crude oil?
A dark, smelly liquid that is a mixture of different chemical compounds, mainly hydrocarbons
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What is a mixture?
Two or more elements/compounds that are not chemically combined together
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What does fractional distillation do?
Separate a mixture into fractions/liquids with different boiling points
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What are hydrocarbons?
Compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
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What are alkanes?
Saturated hydrocarbons
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What are saturated hydrocarbons?
Hydrocarbons that contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible as each carbon atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom
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Name the first 5 alkane molecules.
CH4 (methane), C2H6 (ethane), C3H8 (propane), C4H10 (butane), C5H12 (pentane)
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What is the general formula for alkane molecules?
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How do we separate crude oil into fractions?
Using fractional distillation
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What are the properties of short chain hydrocarbons?
Low boiling point, high volatility, low viscosity, high flammability
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What are the properties of long chain hydrocarbons?
High boiling point, low volatility, high viscosity, low flammability
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What is volatility?
The tendency to turn into gas
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What is viscosity?
How easily it flows/ how runny it is
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Why does each fraction boil at a different temperature?
Because of the different sizes of their molecules
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Describe the process of fractional distillation of crude oil.
Crude oil is preheated and vaporised before it goes into the fractionating column, column is hot at bottom and cool at top, gases condense when they reach the tmep. of BPs, turn into liquids and collected, once cooled fractions are processed b4 used
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What is the fractionating column?
Tall tower used for the fractional distillation of crude oil
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In what order do the fractions come out of the fractionating column
Bitumen, lubricating oil, diesel, kerosene, petroleum, fuel gas
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Which hydrocarbons have the lowest boiling points?
The ones with the smallest molecules
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What is fuel gas used for?
Bottled camping gas, LPG, fuels distillation process
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What is petroleum used for?
Fuel for cars/motorcycles, make chemicals
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What is kerosene used for?
Fuel for greenhouse heaters, jet engines, manufacture of chemicals
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What is diesel used for?
Fuel for lorries, trains
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What are lubricating oils used for?
Fuel for heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oils (oil and grease)
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What is bitumen used for?
Roofing and road surfaces
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What happens when we burn hydrocarbons in plenty of air?
The carbon and hydrogen molecules are completely oxidised to produce carbon dioxide and water
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Write the equation for an oxidised hydrocarbon.
propane + oxygen --- carbon dioxide + water
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What are the problems with hydrocarbons/fossil fuels containing sulphur?
Sulphur impurities in fuels burn to form sulphur dioxide which can cause acid rain- poisonous and acidic, bad for the environment, engine corrosion
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Why is it bad if there is not enough oxygen inside an engine?
Incomplete combustion, we get carbon monoxide, as well as carbon dioxide, which is poisonous
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Why are high temperatures inside engines bad?
Nitrogen and oxygen react, form nitrogen oxides, poisonous, trigger asthma, acid rain
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Why are diesel engines bad?
Burn much bigger hydrocarbons, do not burn completely, particulates produced, damage cells in our lungs, cancer, global dimming
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How can we reduce the effects of burning fuels?
Catalytic converters, filters, flue gas desulphurisation
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How do catalytic converters help?
Reduces carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides produced by a car engine, but do not reduce carbon dioxide
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How do filters help?
Remove most particulates from diesel engines
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How does flue gas desulphurisation help?
Sulphur dioxide removed from waste/flue gases by reacting with calcium oxide/hydroxide
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What are biofuels?
Fuels that are renewable and are made from plant or animal products that could be used to replace some fossil fuels
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What is biodiesel?
A biofuel intended as a substitute for diesel, made from vegetable oils
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What are the advantages of biofuels?
Less harmful to animals and plants, burns much more cleanly, emits less sulphur dioxide, biodiesel will become cheaper to use than petrol, CO2 neutral, we also produce other useful products when making biofuels like glycerine and solid waste material
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What are the disadvantages of biofuels?
CO2 released when fertilising and harvesting crops, extracting and processing oil, transporting plant material, large areas of farmland producing fuel rather than food- famine in poor countries, forest cleared to make space, destruction of habitats
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What happens to biodiesel at low/high temperatures?
High = turns sticky and can gum up engines Low = freeze and turns into sludge
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What is a biofuel made from the sugar in plants?
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What is a potential fuel for the future and why would it be useful?
Hydrogen, no waste products emitted, water is a huge natural resource of hydrogen
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What would be the problems of using hydrogen in the future as a biofuel?
Flammable, storage issues
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a mixture?


Two or more elements/compounds that are not chemically combined together

Card 3


What does fractional distillation do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are hydrocarbons?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are alkanes?


Preview of the front of card 5
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very helpful !

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