C1, c2, c3

what is crude oil a mixture of?
many hydrocarbons
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Hydrocarbons with bigger molecules have...?
stronger intermolecular forces between their molecules
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do molecules with stronger intermolecular forces have higher or lower boiling points than smaller molecules?
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what are fossil fuels?
they are finite resources because they are no longer being made or are being made extremely slowly
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What does cracking help with?
oil refinery match its supply of useful products such as petrol with the demand for them
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cracking converts large alkane molecules into what?
smaller alkane and alkene molecules
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what can crude oil be separated by?
fractional disolation
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where on the fractionating column is crude oil heated?
near the bottom
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where do fractions with low boiling points exit?
at the top
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where do fractions with high boiling points exit?
at the bottom
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why are fossil fuels non-renewable?
because they are being used up faster than they are being made
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what is made when hydrocarbons burn in a plentiful supply of air?
carbon dioxide and water
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what is the atmosphere made up of?
21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and 0.35% other gases
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what are the processes of the carbon cycle?
photosynthesis, respiration and combustion
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what factors need to be considered when choosing a fuel?
energy value, availability, storage, toxicity, pollution and ease of use
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where did the original atmosphere come from?
the degassing of early volcanoes which were rich in water and carbon dioxide
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what colour does carbon dioxide turn limewater?
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what can carbon dioxide be tested for with?
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what is a hydrocarbon a compound of?
carbon atoms an hydrogen atoms only
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what are alkanes?
hydrocarbons which contain single covalent bonds only.
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What are alkenes?
hydrocarbons which contain only double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms
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why can plastics with weak intermolecular forces be easily stretched?
because the polymer molecules can slide over one another
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what do rigid polymers have?
cross-linking bridges
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what does GORE TEX allow?
water vapor to pass out so that sweat does not condense
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how are addition polymers made?
when alkane monomer molecules react together under high pressure and with a catalyst
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What does denature mean?
the change of shape of the protein molecule is permanent
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what are Emulsifiers?
molecules with a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part.
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What does hydrophilic bond to?
water molecules
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what does hydrophobic bond to?
oil molecules
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Why do perfumes need to evaporate?
to reaach the nose
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how does the perfume evaporate?
particles need sufficient kinetic energy to overcome their attraction to other molecules in the liquid
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What do plate movements cause?
Earthquakes and volcanoes
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what evidence does a theory have to have to be accepted?
repeatable and agreed
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how is rock recycled?
by geological processes
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where are metals extracted from?
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is concrete strong or weak?
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how can concrete be reinforced?
with steel
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What do alloys contain?
at least one metal, but have different properties
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hwo is copper extracted?
by reduction
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how is copper purified?
by electrolysis
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what are the ingredients for rusting?
water and oxygen
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what speeds up rusting?
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what is the haber process?
a reversible reaction that makes ammonia
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what is the symbol equation for ammonia?
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
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What can ammonia be used to make?
nitrogen fertilisers
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What can fertilisers cause?
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in electrolysis where do positive ions move to?
the cathode
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where do the negative ions move to?
the anode
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what does electrolysis split sodium chloride solution into?
hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide
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how is sodium chloride obtained?
From the ground or by solution mining
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what is rate of reaction?
how much product is made in a fixed time
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the higher the temperature the...?
more successful the collisions between particles
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what do catalysts do?
change the rate of reaction but remain unchanged at the end
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the higher the temperature...?
the higher the collision frequency of reacting particles
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why are fine powders more combustible?
as they have a grater surface area exposed
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what does increasing pressure increase?
the rate of reactions as there are a higher number of successful collision
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how to calculate percentage yield?
actual yield / predicted yield x 100
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atom economy is?
m of desired products / sum of m of all products x 100
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what is bond breaking?
endothermic process
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what is bond making?
exothermic process
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if the energy transferred during bond breaking is less than during bond making what is the process overall?
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what is the equation for energy per gram?
energy release / mass of fuel burnt
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what are continuos processes used to make?
chemicals such as ammonia
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what are batch processes used to make?
pharmaceutical drugs
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how are chemicals extracted from plants?
by crushing, boiling, dissolving and chromatography
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Diamonds, graphite and fullerenes are allotropes of what?
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does a dimond conduct electricity?
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does graphite conduct electricity and why?
yees, as it has electrons that can move between the layers
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Hydrocarbons with bigger molecules have...?


stronger intermolecular forces between their molecules

Card 3


do molecules with stronger intermolecular forces have higher or lower boiling points than smaller molecules?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what are fossil fuels?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does cracking help with?


Preview of the front of card 5
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