C1 2.1 to C1 2.5

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  • Created on: 19-04-16 20:16
What is limestone?
A rock made of mainly calcium carbonate
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When and how was limestone formed?
Millions of years ago from the remains of tiny animals and plants that lived in the sea
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What is limestone mainly used for?
Building material in the manufacturing of iron, glass, cement, quicklime
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How is cement made?
Powdered limestone heated with powdered clay
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How is concrete made?
Cement powder mixed with water, sand and crushed rock
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What is the chemical formula for calcium carbonate?
CaCO3
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What ions is calcium carbonate made up of?
Ca (calcium) 2+ and CO3 (carbonate) 2-
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What does calcium carbonate break down to form when heated strongly?
Calcium Oxide (and carbon dioxide is produced)
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What is thermal decomposition?
Breaking down a chemical by heating it
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What is calcium oxide used for?
Quicklime, purifying or melting metals, building and farming industries
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Where is calcium oxide produced?
In a rotary lime kiln
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Describe the process of a rotary lime kiln.
Fill the kiln with crushed limestone and heat strongly using a supply of hot air, calcium oxide comes out bottom of kiln, waste gases leave kiln at top
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What is the word equation for calcium oxide?
Calcium carbonate ---(heat)--- calcium oxide + carbon dioxide
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Why is the limestone heated in a rotary kiln?
Makes sure that the limestone is thoroughly mixed with the stream of hot air, and helps the calcium carbonate to decompose completely
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What do buildings and statues made from limestone suffer badly from?
Acid rain
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How can we test for carbon dioxide?
Bubble the gas through limewater and it is present if the limewater solution turns cloudy
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What is limewater?
Calcium Hydroxide
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What is the word equation for the carbon dioxide test?
Calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide --- calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
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Carbonates react with acids to give...
a salt, water and carbon dioxide
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What do many metal carbonates do on heating?
Decompose to form a metal oxide and carbon dioxide
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What happens when we add water to calcium oxide?
It reacts to produce calcium hydroxide
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What is the word equation for the reaction that produces calcium hydroxide?
calcium oxide + water --- calcium hydroxide (limewater)
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As calcium hydroxide is alkaline, what can it be used for?
Neutralising acids
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What is step 1 of the limestone reaction cycle?
Heat up calcium carbonate (limestone) to give calcium oxide (and carbon dioxide waste gas)
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What is step 2 of the limestone reaction cycle?
Add a little water to the calcium oxide to produce calcium hydroxide
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What is step 3 of the limestone reaction cycle?
Add more water to calcium hydroxide to form a calcium hydroxide solution (limewater)
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What is step 4 of the limestone reaction cycle?
Add carbon dioxide to the calcium hydroxide solution to form calcium carbonate again (also the test for carbon dioxide)
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What is calcium hydroxide used for?
Used by farmers to improve acidic soil because it will raise the pH as alkali, also neutralises acidic waste gases in industry before they are released
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What is mortar and what is it used for?
Calcium hydroxide mixed with sand and water, used as a building material
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What are the disadvantages of lime mortar?
Does not harden very quickly and it will not set if water prevents it from reacting with carbon dioxide
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How is cement made?
Heating limestone with clay in a kiln
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How is concrete made?
Mixing crushed rocks/ aggregate with cement, water and sand
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What are the advantages of concrete?
Very strong, good at resisting forces that tend to squash it/ crush it/ pull apart
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How is limestone collected?
Quarried from the ground- blasted from a quarry by explosives and the taken in lorries to be processed
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What are the advantages of limestone quarrying?
Creates jobs, landscaped to blend in after limestone collected, limestone is a useful raw material
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What are the disadvantages of limestone quarrying?
Eyesore, destroy habitats, lorries create traffic, lorries create more carbon dioxide, explosives cause noise pollution and dust which is bad for crops
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What is concrete used for?
Glass fibres, carbon fibres, steel rods, nylon, polypropene, polyesters, building material
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Card 2

Front

When and how was limestone formed?

Back

Millions of years ago from the remains of tiny animals and plants that lived in the sea

Card 3

Front

What is limestone mainly used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is cement made?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is concrete made?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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