• Created by: Mpopatx
  • Created on: 17-11-21 17:17
describe the differences in the arrangement in particles in a solid, liquid and gas?
in a solid the particles are in a regular structure and are close together. in a liquid particles are random and close together. in a gas the particles are random and far apart.
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definite shape and volume
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definite volume but no definite shape
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no definite shape or volume
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melting point
the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid
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boiling point
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
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Anything that has mass and takes up space
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particle theory
Matter is made up of tiny particles which are represented as small solid spheres which are constantly moving.
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uses of particle theory
Explaining changes of state
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Limitations of particle theory
no differences between forces or particles
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movement of particles in a solid
Vibrate about a fixed position
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movement of particles in a liquid
Move around and slide past one another
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movement of particles in a gas
Move freely and quickly in all directions
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Solid --> Liquid
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Liquid --> Solid
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Liquid --> Gas
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Gas --> Liquid
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when a substance is heated
Particles stay the same size but move further apart, causing the substance to expand
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when a substance cools
Particles stay the same size, but move closer together, causing the substance to contract
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pure substance
Either a single element or a single compound
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A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
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A mixture that has been designed for a specific purpose
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Melting/boiling point of pure substances
a single defined temperature
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Melting/boiling points of mixtures
a range of temperatures
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Melting point of pure water
0 °C
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Boiling point of pure water
100 °C
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Examples of formulations
Paint, processed food, fuels, cleaning products, cosmetics
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Test for purity
Test melting/boiling point
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lumps of substance that are 1-100 nanometers in size
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Nanoparticles in formulations
Useful in formulations as you can use less
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test if water is pure
test if boiling point is exactly 100 °C
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separates insoluble solids from liquids
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The formation of crystals by cooling a saturated solution
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Simple distillation
Used to separate a liquid from a solution
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Fractional distillation
separation of a liquid mixture into fractions with different boiling points using a fractionating column.
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A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.
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A substance which is capable of dissolving other substances
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A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
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incapable of being dissolved in a given solvent
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A solution that cannot dissolve any more solute at a given temperature
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Separates the components of a mixture based on their solubility.
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Mobile phase of chromatography
Solvent, which moves up the stationary phase
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Rf value
A measurement of how far components of a mixture moves up a chromatogram.
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Rf formula
distance traveled by spot ÷ distance traveled by solvent
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Rf of the same chemical
Is always the same in the same solvent
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The chromatography ***** at the end of the experiment
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Solvent front
The furthest point reached by the solvent
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Mixtures on a chromatogram
Will produce more than one spot in the same vertical column
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A substance moves at different speeds
depending on how attarcted it is to the stationary/mobile phase
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Identification of chemicals using chromatography
Compare Rf to known substances in a database
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Potable water
water that is safe to drink but contains dissolved ions
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pure water
only water molecules
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Grids which remove large objects prior to water treatment
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filter beds
Clean sand and gravel which filter insoluble grit particles in a water treatment plant
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Killing pathogens in water using Chlorine
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Removal of salt from seawater to make it usable for drinking and farming
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Measuring dissolved solids in water
Evaporate water and weigh the solids
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Simple distillation
Used to obtain a solvent from a solution
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Disadvantage of using distillation
uses lots of energy
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Desalination by distillation
Filter, boil, cool and condensed
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Relative mass of a proton
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Relative mass of a neutron
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Relative mass of an electron
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Relative charge of a proton
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Relative charge of a neutron
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Relative charge of an electron
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Neutral atoms
same number of positive protons as negative electrons
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Atomic (proton) number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Subatomic particles in the nucleus
protons and neutrons
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Electron Shells
The region surrounding the nucleus where electrons orbit the nucleus.
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A subatomic particle that has a positive charge, defines the type of atom and that is found in the nucleus
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A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
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A subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found in electron shells, orbiting the nucleus
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mass number (atomic mass)
number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom of an element
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Average atomic radius
0.1 nm (1 x 10^-10 m)
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Average radius of an atomic nucleus
10,000 times smaller than an atom (1 x 10^-14 m)
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number of protons in an atom
atomic number
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Number of neutrons in atom
mass number
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Number of electrons in an atom
Number of electrons in an atom
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Relative atomic mass
The weighted average mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
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Formula for relative atomic mass
Sum of (isotope abundance x isotope mass number) / sum of abundances of all the isotopes
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Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
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Order of elements on historic periodic table
Elements were ordered by atomic weight
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Order of elements on modern periodic table
Elements are ordered by atomic number
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A vertical column of elements with the same number of outer shell electrons
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A horizontal row of elements with the same number of electron shells
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Physical properties
observed or measured characteristics of a substance. (e.g. colour, density)
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Chemical properties
How a substance reacts with other substances.
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First shell can hold
2 electrons
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2nd and 3rd shell can hold
8 electrons
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no of shells =
Period on the periodic table
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Valence electrons
Outer shell electrons which are involved in reactions
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No of valence electrons =
Group number on the periodic table
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what are bonds?
forces of attraction that hold atoms together
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Formation of metal ions
Atoms lose outer electrons
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Elements that form positive ions
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Formation of non-metal ions
Atoms gain electrons
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Charge on non-metal ions
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Electron structure of ions
Same as the nearest noble gas
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Giant structure
A huge 3D network of atoms or ions
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Giant ionic lattice
A huge, 3D, regular structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by electrostatic forces.
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Limitations of dot and cross diagram
Looks like the compound only contains a few ions
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Limitations of a dot and stick diagram
Looks like each ion is only attracted to a few other ions
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Limitations of a 3D diagram
Looks like it only contains a few ions
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Melting and boiling points of ionic substances
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Reason for melting and boiling points of ionic substances
Strong electrostatic forces between opposite ions need lots of energy to break
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Movement of ions in a solid
Ions vibrate around fixed positions
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Made liquid by heat
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Movement of ions when molten
Ions can move past each other
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Movement of ions in solution
Ions break apart and move freely
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Conductivity of solid ionic compounds
don't conduct
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Reason for conductivity of solid ionic compounds
Ions are fixed in place
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Conductivity of molten/dissolved ionic compounds
good conductors
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Reason for conductivity of liquid/dissolved ionic compounds
Ions are free to move and carry charge
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Electrostatic force of attraction
The attractive force between oppositely charged particles.
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Giant structure
A three-dimensional network of atoms or ions
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regular arrangement of particles
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Giant covalent structure
a huge 3D network of covalently bonded atoms
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covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons
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Examples of giant covalent structures
Diamond, graphite
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Different forms of the same element
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Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
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A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
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intermolecular forces
Forces of attraction between molecules
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Properties of graphite
Soft, Slippery, good conductor of heat and electricity
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Reason graphite is soft
Weak forces between layers which can slide over each other.
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Reason graphite and graphene conduct electricity
One spare electron is delocalised and can carry charge through the layer
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Materials made of two or more different materials, containing a matrix and a reinforcement.
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Delocalised electrons
an electron that is able to move freely throughout a structure
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Group 1 charge
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Group 2 charge
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group 3 charge
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Group 5 charge
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Group 6 charge
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A danger or risk
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It is a chemical compound, mixture or device that explode
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Provides oxygen to make other substances burn more fiercely
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These substances can burn through skin, clothing and other tough materials
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Environmental Hazard
Substances that can cause harm to the environment. Special disposal regulations
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acute toxicity
These substances can cause death when breathed in, swallowed or absorbed by skin. We will not use these substances.
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Gases under pressure
Gas released may be very cold. Gas container may explode if heated
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Moderate hazard
A substance that may cause irritation to the skin, eyes or inside your body.
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Health hazard
may cause serious health effects, for example to the respiratory tract
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may cause serious health effects, for example to the respiratory tract
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A measure taken in advance to prevent harm
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A substance that reacts with an acid and neutralises it
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Split into ions
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A measure of H+ concentration
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Ions produced by acids
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Ions produced by alkalis
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Neutralisation reaction
The reaction of an acid and a base forming a salt and water
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Ionic equation for an acid and an alkali
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) --> H2O(l)
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Strong acid
An acid that ionises completely in water
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Weak acid
An acid that only partially ionises in water
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amount dissolved/volume of solution
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Metal + Acid -->
Salt + hydrogen
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Acid + Base -->
Salt + water
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Acid + Carbonate -->
Salt + water + carbon dioxide
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Test for hydrogen gas
Lighted splint burns with a squeaky pop.
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Test for carbon dioxide gas
Bubble through to limewater forming a white precipitate
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Calculating Empirical Formula Steps
1) if given mass or % by mass of each element, divide each by the element's RAM. (Convert to moles)
2) Find the smallest result from step 1.
3) Divide each one by the smallest number from Step 1.
4) Round all to a whole number.
5) Use the whole number rat
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Calculating Product Mass with Limiting Reactant Mass
1)Calculating Product Mass with Limiting Reactant Mass
2)calculate relative formula masses
3)calculate ratio of masses
4)work out mass for 1g
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avogadro constant
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Moles (mol) = mass (g) / relative atomic mass or relative formula mass
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H+ is attracted to
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Discharge of H+
2H+ +2e- --> H2
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OH- is attracted to
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Discharge of OH-
4OH- --> O2 + 2H2O + 4e-
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Discharged at the cathode in solution
Least reactive element
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Discharged at the anode in solution
Halide ions, if present, otherwise OH-
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Halide ions
a negative ion formed from a group 7 element
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Electrolysis of water acidified with sulfuric acid
Produces hydrogen gas and oxygen gas
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Purifying copper
A form of electrolysis where impure copper is the cathode and pure copper is the anode
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Electrode at which reduction occurs
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Electrode at which oxidation occurs.
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A device for conducting electricity into the liquid
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A positively charged ion
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A negatively charged ion
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An ionic compound able to conduct an electric current
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Reason solid ionic substance can't conduct electricity
Ions are in fixed positions
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Reason molten/dissolved ionic substances can conduct electricity
Ions are free to move and carry charge
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In electrolysis ions go to
Opposite charge electrode
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Positive ions go to
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Negative ions go to
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Remove an electric charge by adding/removing electrons
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Metals require electrolysis to extract
If they are more reactive than carbon, or react with carbon
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2 Reasons electrolysis requires lots of energy
To melt the compound and to produce the electrical current
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reactivity series
penny said carol murderd amys zebra in cold slippery goo
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a rock that contains enough metal to make it profitable to extract
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Displacement reaction
A reaction in which a more reactive element replaces a less reactive element in a compound
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Life Time Assessment (LTA)
A technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life
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4 stages of LTA
Extracting and processing raw materials, Manufacturing and packaging, Use and reuse, Disposal
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Recycling aluminium
Shread, heat to remove paint, melt, cast, reshape
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Recycling impure copper
e.g. pipes. Purify using electrolysis, recast
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Recycling pure copper
wiring. Melt, recast.
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Reversible reactions
The products can react to reform the reactants
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definite shape and volume

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melting point


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