BY4 Q/A CARDS

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What is one cell type that contains a large amount of mitochondria?
Muscle // Liver
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Why is ATP sometimes referred to as 'an immediate energy source'?
The energy is released rapidly and in one single step - It's also transferred directly to the requires that requires the ATP.
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Where do the processes of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle occur?
Cytoplasm // Matrix of the mitochondrion
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What is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain?
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor - if there were no oxygen electrons would accumulate along the chain and so the reaction wouldn't take place.
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What is the advantage of the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane being highly folded and thus forming cristae?
A large surface area is provided for electron carriers that transfer electrons along the chain to attach to.
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Which releases the most energy, a gram of fat or a gram of carbohydrate?
A gram of fat
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Which two products of the light-dependent stage are used in the light-independent stage?
ATP // Reduced NADP
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Why did the bacteria in Englemann's experiment cluster where it did?
The bacteria moved to where oxygen was produced most - at the RED and BLUE wavelengths.
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What is the difference between an absorption spectrum and an action spectrum?
Action spectrum - shows the rate of photosynthesis at diff wavelengths of light // Absorption spectrum shows how much light a certain pigment absorbs at each wavelength.
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What is the advantage of a leaf containing more than one pigment?
More pigments - more wavelengths absorbed
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Which pigment is found at the reaction centre?
Chlorophyll a
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What is the source of replacement of electrons for Photosystem II?
Water - photolysis
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What is the waste product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
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What are two differences between non-cyclic and cyclic phosphorylation?
Cyclic - only PSI - source of electrons is PSI - final electron acceptor is PSI // Non-cyclic involves PSI and PSII - source of electrons WATER is PSII - final electron acceptor is reduced NADP.
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Why is it essential to regenerate ribulose biphosphate?
So the additional CO2 can be accepted and the cycle can continue.
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What is the reason for the lag phase during population growth?
This period is for preparation of growth and enzymes are produced by protein synthesis.
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What does the term 'carrying capacity' mean?
The maximum population size that can be supported by the resources that are available.
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What is the difference between density-dependent factors and density-independent factors?
DD - effect depends on population size // DI - effect is the same no matter the population size.
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What are three density-dependent factors that could limit the growth of a population?
Lack of food, parasitism, toxic waste, predation.
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If two species of a single-celled organism, Paramecium, P.aurelia and P.caudatum were grown together in a culture, what kind of competition is most likely to have caused the numbers of P.caudatum to decrease?
Interspecific
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What are the properties of an ideal insecticide?
Specific - non-persistent - should not accumulate and be passed along food chains.
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What are the properties of an organism used for biological control of a pest?
The species is highly specific - long term - no contamination to the environment
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If a parasitic wasp (Encarsia formosa) is used to control whitefly populations in a glasshouse, what are two reasons as to why it would be inappropriate to use both chemical and biological methods?
Chemicals are non-specific and would kill the wasm - long term residual effect - waste of money.
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What is an explanation for the rise of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere?
Increased combustion of fossil fuels - deforestation (less photosynthesis)
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Why do plants require nitrate?
Nitrate is combined with the products of photosynthesis which forms amino acids - These are then converted to proteins which are required for growth.
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What is the name of the process of ammonium ions being converted to nitrate ions?
Nitrification
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What is one way total nitrogen can be lost from an area of land?
Denitrification, leaching, harvesting, deforestation.
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Why is negative feedback important in maintaining a system at a set point?
If information is not fed back when the effector has made a correction and returned to the set point - the receptor continues to stimulate the effector - leads to over-correction.
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Which region of the kidney contains the Bowman's capsules?
Cortex
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What is the importance of the diameter of the efferent vessel being narrower than the afferent vessel?
Increases the pressure in the glomerulus
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In which region of the uriniferous tubule is all of the glucose and most of the water and salt reabsorbed?
Proximal convoluted tubule
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What are two ways in which the cells in the proximal convoluted tubules are adapted for absorption?
PCT has microvilli and a lot of mitochondria.
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What is the structure responsible for the detection of changes in water potential of blood?
Osmoreceptors of hypothalamus
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What is the gland responsible for the release of ADH?
Pituitary gland
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Which excretory product requires the least amount of water for its excretion?
Uric acid
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What is the importance of a reflex action?
They are rapid because neurone pathway is short (one or two synapses) // Also, they are protective
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Why is the dark area of the spinal cord called grey matter?
Under a microscope you can see that the grey area contains cell bodies of neurones.
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What is the disadvantage of a nerve net system?
The extensions are short and they branch in different directions // Also, the transmission is slow.
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Which type of neurone carries nerve impulses to the effector?
Motor neurone.
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What is the figure for the resting potential?
-70mV
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What is the significance of the refractory period?
Another action cannot be generated until the resting potential is restored // An undirectional impulse is ensured and this prevents an impulse from merging.
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What are two factors that increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission?
Myelination // Diameter of the axon
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Why is mitochondria found abundantly in the presynaptic region?
The mitochondria provide ATP which is needed to resynthesise the neurotansmitter.
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Why is there a continuous supply of acetylcholine?
Acetylcholine is broken down by chlolinesterase and the components reform on the other side of the synaptic cleft.
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What is the name of the hormone that initiates flowering and in what part of the plant is it found?
Florigen // It is found in the leaves
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What are the practical applications for hortriculturalists of knowing when plants flower?
Plant breeders can cross-pollinate flowers which would not normally flower at the same time // They can prepare the flowering of flowering plants for known dates (Christmas/Easter)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is ATP sometimes referred to as 'an immediate energy source'?

Back

The energy is released rapidly and in one single step - It's also transferred directly to the requires that requires the ATP.

Card 3

Front

Where do the processes of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the role of oxygen in the electron transport chain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the advantage of the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane being highly folded and thus forming cristae?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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