BY2 Transport in animals and plants - part one

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  • Created by: Danielle
  • Created on: 10-12-13 14:44
Name the features that a transport system must have.
- A suitable medium to carry materials - A closed system of vessels that contains blood and forms branching network to distribute to all parts of the body - A pump for moving the blood within the vessels e.g. heart
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ctd of name the features that tran.....
- Valves to maintain the flow in one direction - A respiratory pigment which increases the volume of oxygen can be transported (absent in insects)
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The ___ greater the metabolic rate the ___ the need for rapid transport of glucose and oxygen.
Increase and increase or decrease and decrease
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*22 Apart from vessels and valves, state three features, giving examples, of transport system in animals.
- Medium, e.g. Blood - Pump e.g. heart - Respiratory pigment e.g. hemoglobin
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*23 State three differences between the blood system of an insect and that of a mammal.
- No pigment in insect, hemoglobin in mammals - Open blood system in insects closed in mammals - Oxygen transported through trachea in insects, via blood in mammals
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Do insects have an open or close circulatory system?
An open circulatory system
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Describe the circulatory system in an insect
- Blood is pumped at relatively low pressure from one main long dorsal tube shaped heart running the length of the body. Blood pumped out of the heart into spaces called haemooel within the body cavity. The blood bathes the tissues directly.
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cntd describe the circulatory syste..
Blood returns to the heart where valves and waves of contraction of the muscle region moves blood to the head region where the system starts again. There is no respiratory pigment.
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*24 What is the advantage of a double circulatory system?
- In passing through the heart the second time a double circulation ensures that the blood is pumped around body at greater pressure
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*25 Give two reasons why arteries have a thick muscular wall.
- to withstand pressure when blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart - to maintain pressure reduced by friction when blood passes through vessels
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*26 The capillaries slow down the flow of blood at tissues. What is the significance of this?
To slow blood flow and allow time for diffusion of substances
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What do arteries and veins do?
Transport materials
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What do capillaries do?
Allow gas exchange to take place
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Do fish have a single or double circulatory system?
A single circulation
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What is a double circulatory system?
A closed system in which the blood passes through the heart twice.
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Do mammals have a single or double circulatory system?
A double circulatory system
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Describe the circulatory system in mammals.
Pulmonary circulation - the right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, oxygenated blood then returns to the left side of the heart. Systematic circulation- The left side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the tissues and the
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cntd describe the circulatory system in mammals
deoxygenated blood returns to the right side of the heart.In each circuit the blood passes through the heart twice.
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Name the three types of blood vessels.
Veins, arteries, capillaries
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Name the three basic layers of both arteries and veins in order from the middle to the out.
Endothilium - elastic fibres and smooth fibres - Collagen fibres
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Describe the endothelium in arteries and veins
- One cell thick - Provide a smooth lining to reduce friction and provide a minimum resistance to the flow of blood
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Describe the middle layer in arteries and veins
- Made of elastic fibres and smooth muscles - Thicker in arteries than veins to accommodate the changes in blood flow and pressures
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Describe the outer layer of blood vessels
- Made up of collagen fibres - Resistant to over stretching
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What do arteries do?
Carry blood away from the heart
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Why do arteries have a thicker muscle muscular layer?
To withstand the pressure of blood receieved from the heart
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What do arteries branch into?
Arterioles
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What do arterioles branch into?
Capillaries
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Blood from capillaries collect at ___ which turn into ___
Venules and Veins
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Why do veins have larger diamiters and thinner walls?
Because the pressure is reduced
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Which is the only artery to contain vavles?
The aorta with aortic vavles
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Why do veins contain semi-lunar vavles?
To prevent back flow
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What are capillaries made from?
One layer of endothelium
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Why do capillaries create slow movement of blood?
To emhance the ability to exchange materials with the surrounding tissue fluid
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What is a systole?
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle
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What is a diastole?
The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle
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What does myoenic mean?
The heartbeat is initiated from within the muscle itself and is not due to nervous stimulation
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How many chambers are there in the heart?
4
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What is the cardiac cycle?
The sequence of events in one heartbeat
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Describe the first stage of the cardiac cycle
Right and left ventricles relax, tricuspid and bicuspid valves open as the atria contract and blood flows into ventricles
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Describe the second stage of the cardiac cycle
Atria relax, right and left vrntricles contract together forcing blood out pf heart into pulmonary artery and the aorta and semilunar vavles open. tricuspid and bicuspid vavles closed by the rise in ventricular pressure. pulmonary artery carries d.o.
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cntd describe second stage
blood to the lungs and the aorta carries o blood to the various parts of the body
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Describe the third stage of the cardiac cycle
Ventricles relax and pressure within the ventricle falls, high pressure in the arteries causes the semilunar vavle to shut which prevents blood from going back into ventricles. ia
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cntd describe the third stage of the cardiac cycle
blood from vena cava and pulmonary veins enter the atria and the cycle starts again
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Describe the flow of blood through the left side of the left side of the heart
- Relaxes atrium receivea oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins - When full pressure causes bicuapid vavle to open (valve between ateium and ventricle) - Relaxation of left ventricle draws blood from the left atrium
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cntd describe the flow of blood through the left side of the heart
- Left atrium contracts pushing remaining blood into right ventricle through vavle - With left atrium relaxed and bicuspid vavle closed the left ventricle contracts - Strong muscular wall exert pressue and push blood away through the semilunar vavle
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True or false? Both sides of the heart work together e.g. both atria contract together & both ventricles contract together
True
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True or false? Both sides of the heart work after one another .g. atria contract after each other & ventricles contract after each other
False
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True or false? One complete contraction and relaxation of the heart is called a heartbeat
True
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True or false? Four complete contraction and relaxation of the heart is called a heartbeat
False
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True or false? The ventricles contain more muscle than the atria and so create more pressure to force the blood a greater distance
True
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True or false? The atria contain more muscle than the ventricles and so create more pressure to force the blood a greater distance
False
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Why does the left ventricle have a thicker muscular wall than the right ventricle?
Because it has to push blood all the way around the body whereas the right ventricle only has to push blood to the lungs
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What is the bundle of his?
A strand of modified cardiac muscle fibre continuous with the AVN and Purkinjie tissue fans over the walls of the ventricles
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What is Purkinje tissue?
A nerwork of fibres in the wall of the ventricles
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*27 What is the significance of the heart pumping from the base upwards?
Greater force of blood from the base upwards and also ensures that the compartment is completely emptied
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Where does the highest pressure occur in the heart?
aorta or arteries that show a rhythmic rise and fall corresponding to ventricular contraction
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What are the two main types of blood cells?
Erythrocytes or red blood cells and Leucocytes or white blood cells
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*28 Give features of the red blood cells that make them well suited for the carriage of oxygen
- Haemoglobin - Large surface area/biconcave - No nucleus/more room for haemoglobin
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*29 List two ways in which the shape of the haemoglobin dissociation curve line differs from the theoretical line
Theoretical line would be proportional bisecting the axis but actual line shows steeper rise between 2&7 Kpa and does not flatten at top
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What is the function of plasma in the blood?
Transport carbon dioxide, digestion of food products, hormones, plasma proteins, fibrinogen, antibodies and disteibutes heat
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What is the function of red blood cells?
To carry oxygen
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Name the two groups for white blood cells
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
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What is the function of granulocytes (white blood cells)?
(they are phagocytoic, have granular cytoplasm and lobbed nuclei) they engluf bacteria
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What is the function of agranulocytes (white blood cells)?
Produce antibodies and antitoxins (have clear cytoplasm and spherical nuclei)
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What does haemoglobin become when it picks up oxygen?
Oxyhaemoglobin
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Haemoglobin picks up oxygen when the partial pressure is ___
High
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Haemoglobin dissociates oxygen when partial pressure is ___
Low
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As the concentration of oxygen ___ respiratory pigments affinity for oxygen ___
Decreases & decreases or Increases & increases
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What causes the Bohr effect?
A high partial pressure of carbon dioxide
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What two things affect the amount of oxygen carried by haemoglobin?
The partial pressure of oxygen and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide
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What is the Bohr effect?
At higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide the oxygen curve shifts to the right
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

ctd of name the features that tran.....

Back

- Valves to maintain the flow in one direction - A respiratory pigment which increases the volume of oxygen can be transported (absent in insects)

Card 3

Front

The ___ greater the metabolic rate the ___ the need for rapid transport of glucose and oxygen.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

*22 Apart from vessels and valves, state three features, giving examples, of transport system in animals.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

*23 State three differences between the blood system of an insect and that of a mammal.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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