BY1 WJEC enzymes

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  • Created by: rosie25
  • Created on: 23-03-14 21:29
What is the structure of enzymes?
Globular proteins, act as biological catalysts, speed rate of reaction.
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What is the molecule that enzymes react with called?
Substrate
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Where does the substrate bind to?
The active site
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What is it called when the enzyme and substrate join?
Enzyme-substrate complex
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What happens to the enzyme after the products are released?
It is unchanged and reusable
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What are the key properties of enzymes?
Each enzyme will only work for one substrate- same shape
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What do enzymes lower in a reaction?
Activation energy- energy needed to break bonds
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What are the 2 environmental factors that affect enzyme action and how do they affect it?
Temperature-rise increases energy and rate increases, until optimum, then increasing vibrations causes h bonds to break and changes shape (denature). pH-extreme pH changes outside of optimum can denature, but small changes are reversible
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What are the 2 other factors that affect enzyme action and how do they affect it?
Substrate concentration- Rate increases as substrate increases. As more is added, theres a point where all active sites are filled & then it levels off. Enzyme concentration- rate increases until all active sites are filled & theres excess substrate
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What is a competitive enzyme inhibitor?
A molecule that competes with substrate for active site because its shape is similar to substrate so they can occupy active site
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What is a non-competitive enzyme inhibitor?
Binds to site which isn't active site. It alters overall shape of enzyme, including active site, so substrate won't fit. Rate isn't affected as they're not competing for same area.
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What is an immobilised enzyme?
Enzymes that are fixed, bound or trapped on an inert matrix
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What are the advantages of immobilised enzymes?
Reusable (doesn't mix), so cheaper. Tolerate wider range of conditions. Enzymes with differing pH or temp optima can be used together. Greater control.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the molecule that enzymes react with called?

Back

Substrate

Card 3

Front

Where does the substrate bind to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is it called when the enzyme and substrate join?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to the enzyme after the products are released?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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