BY1 WJEC biological molecules

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  • Created by: rosie25
  • Created on: 25-03-14 12:45
What is the general formula of monosaccharides?
(CH2O)n
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What is their name determined by?
The number of carbon atoms in the formula (n) e.g. pentose sugar=5C, glucose=6C
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What formula does glucose have?
C6H12O6
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How many isomers of glucose are there and what are they called?
2 and they are called alpha and beta
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What are the two functions of glucose?
Source of energy (ATP) in respiratio, act as building blocks for larger molecules e.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose
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What are disaccharides formed by?
2 monosccharides that have linked together
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What is the reaction called when the 2 monosaccharides join together and what happens?
Condensation reaction-join together with glycosidic bond and remove water
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What are they used for?
Storage and transport
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What do you use for testing for presence of sugars and what do the results show?
Use benedicts reagant, heat and if its positive it should go from blue to brick red
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What is starch?
A polysaccharide
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What is it used for and why?
Storage because unlike glucose its soluble and compact. Found in plants as starch grains
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What are the two polymers of starch called?
Amylose and amylopection
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What are the structures of amylose and amylopectin?
Amylose is coiled and linear, the 1-4 linkages cause it to coil. Amylopectin is branched and fits inside the amylose.
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What is the main storage product in animals?
Glycogen
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What do you use to test for presence of starch and what are the results?
Add idone. A positive result shows the solution turning from orange/brown to blue/black
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Where is cellulose found and what is it made of?
Plants and its made of many long parallel chains of B-glucose cross linked by h bonds.
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What does the cross-linkages give it?
Structural stability
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What do 60-70 cellulose molecules form and what are they held together in?
Microfibrils and they are held together in bundles called fibres
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Where is chitin found and what is added to it?
It is found in insects and its similar to cellulose but has an amino acid added.
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What does this addition of the amino acid form and what are the features of it?
Mucopolysaccharide. It is strong, waterproof, lightweight and forms the exoskeleton of insects.
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What are triglycerides formed by?
Combination of 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids.
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What reaction causes the fatty acid to join to the glycerol?
Condensation reaction- 3 molecules of water removed and oxgen (ester) bond is formed
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If a double bond is present in the hydrocarbon chain what is it described as?
Unsaturated
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What are the key roles of lipids?
Plasma membrane, energy reserve and insulator, protection for delicate organs
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What is the lipid part of the phospholipid?
Non-polar, hydrophobic and insoluble
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What is the phosphate group of the phospholipid?
Polar, dissolves in water and hydrophillic
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What do proteins contain that carbohydrates don't?
Nitrogen
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What is the structure made of that all amino acids have?
An amino group -NH2 , and a carboxyl group -COOH
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What is the compound called when 2 amino acids join?
Dipeptide
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What is the bond called?
Peptide
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What is the test for proteins called and what happens?
Biuret, if it turns purple its positive
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What is the primary and secondary structure of proteins?
Primary-sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain. Secondary-shape that chain forms as a result of H bonding. Chain is twisted into 3D shape- a-helix
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What is the tertiary and quartenary structure of proteins?
a-helix folded and twisted to give a complex/compact 3D structure. Maintained by disulphide, ionic and hydrogen bonds. Quarternary- 2+ pp chains in tertiary form. Globular=folded into spherical moecules, soluble. Fibrous=parallel chains with linkages
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Why is water an excellent solvent?
Slightly negative and positive so attracts other charged particles. This allows chemical reactions to take place in solution.
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What does it mean that water has a high specific heat?
Large amount of heat energy needed to raise the temp.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is their name determined by?

Back

The number of carbon atoms in the formula (n) e.g. pentose sugar=5C, glucose=6C

Card 3

Front

What formula does glucose have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many isomers of glucose are there and what are they called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two functions of glucose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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