BY1 definitions

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activation energy
the energy required to bring about a reaction: this is loweredby enzymes.
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active site
the specific portion of an enzyme into which the substrate fits by weak chemical bonds.
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active transport
the movement if a substance against the concentration gradient across a membrane; requires chemical energy in form of ATP.
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adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
an activated nucleotide found in all living cells, and works as an energy carrier.
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aerobic respiration
a process requirbg free oxygen to release energy from glucose.
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biosensor
an instrument with immobilised enzymes that are specific to a biological molecule, allowing its concentration to be measured.
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capillarity
the tendency of water to move up in narrow tubes
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cell cycle
the sequence of events that takes place from one division to the next
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chlorophyll
the green pigment found in chloroplast
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chromosome
a threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus.
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cohesion
the attraction between molecules of the same type.
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competitive inhibitor
a molecule or particle of a similar shape to the substrate and so fits in an active site, stopping the enzyme from reacting the substrate.
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condensation reaction
a chemical process in which two molecules combine to create a larger molecule and eliminates water.
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crossing over
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids in synapsis of meosis I.
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cytoplasm
the entire contents of a cell, excluding the nucleus, bounded by the plasma membrane.
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denaturation
the permanent damage to the structure and shape of a protein.
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differentiation
the process in which cells specialise to a specific function.
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diffusion
the passive movement of a substance from a high concentration gradient to a lower one.
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diploid
a cell containing two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
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endocytosis
the engulfing of material into a cell in a vesicle by the plasma membrane.
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enzyme
a protein that acts as a biological catalyst, speeding up a reaction without being used up.
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ester bond
the bond formed between glycerol and fatty acids.
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eukaryotic cell
a cell with a membrane bound nucleus and organelles
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exocytosis
the secretion of substances in a vesicle through the cell membrane.
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facilitated diffusion
a passive process in which substances are moved from a high concentration gradient to a lower one, using channel or carrier proteins.
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flaccid
no more water can leave the cell, and it is said to be plasmolysed
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gamete
a seex cell containing half the number of chromosomes (haploid) as body cells.
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gene
a length of DNA that codes for a particular polypeptide.
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glycosidic bond
the bond between two monosaccharide units.
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haploid
a single copy of each chromosome.
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homologous chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci and determine features.
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hydrolysis
the breaking down of large molecules by the addition of water.
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immobilised enzyme
an enzyme that is fixed trapped or bound onto an inert matrix.
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induced fit
the change of shape of the active site of an enzyme as a substrate enters, to create a more snug fit.
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intrinsic proteins
proteins that span the phospholipid bilayer from one side to the other.
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isomer
compounds with the same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms
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isotonic solutions
solutions of equal solute concentration.
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kinetic energy
the energy possessed by an object due to its movement.`
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meiosis
A two stage type of cell divison that results in gametes with a haploid amount of chromosomes.
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metabolism
all an organisms checmical processes
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microfibril
bundles of cellulose fibres packed together due to hydrogen bonds
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mitosis
a type of cell division in with the two daughter cells have the same amount of chromosomes as the adult cell.
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non-competitive inhibitor
a substance that attached to the allosteric site of an enzyme, altering its shape, and stopping its function.
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nucleotide
a complex chemical made up from a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate.
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nucleus
the chromosome containing organelle of the nucleus.
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organelle
a functionally and structurally distinct part of a cell.
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osmosis
the net movement of water from a high concentration to a low concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
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pentose sugar
possessing 5 carbon atoms
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peptide bond
chemical bond between to amino acids following a condensation reaction
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phagocytosis
the mechanism in which a cell engulfs large particles through the cell membrane.
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photsynthesis
the chemical process in which pkants, via chlorophyll and light energy, turn water and carbon dioxide into glucose and water
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plasmolysis
the movement of the cell membrane away from the cell wall when a cell loses water by osmosis.
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polymer
long chain of repeating units
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selective permeability
the property of some biological membranes in which only certain substances are allowed across
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sister chromatids
replicated forms of a chromosome joined together at the centromere and separated during cell division.
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solute
a substance dissolved in a solvent.
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turgid
when a plant cell cannot take any more water in, as the cell wall creates a pressure potential
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water potential
the tendency of water to move due to concentration differences e.g. fom high wp to lower wp. a solute decreases wp, and pressure increases it .
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zygote
the diploid product of two haploid gametes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the specific portion of an enzyme into which the substrate fits by weak chemical bonds.

Back

active site

Card 3

Front

the movement if a substance against the concentration gradient across a membrane; requires chemical energy in form of ATP.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

an activated nucleotide found in all living cells, and works as an energy carrier.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a process requirbg free oxygen to release energy from glucose.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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