BY1 FLASHCARDS

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Explain the difference between a condensation reaction and hydrolysis?
Condensation - Two monosaccharides join to form a disaccharide with the elimination of water and the formation of a glycosidic bond // Hydrolysis - the addition of water to a disaccharide which results in the formation of two monosaccharides
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Are the following carbohydrates monosaccharide / disaccharide / polysaccharides /
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Lactose
Disaccharide
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Cellulose
Polysaccharide
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Glucose
Monosaccharide
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Glycogen
Polysaccharide
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What is the role of lactose?
Energy
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Does lactose occur in plants or animals?
Plants and animals
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What is the role of cellulose?
Structural
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Does cellulose occur in plants or animals?
Plants
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Does glucose occur in plants or animals?
Plants and animals
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What is the role of glucose?
Energy
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Does glycogen occur in plants or animals?
Animals
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What is the role of glycogen?
Energy store
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What are the products formed and the type of bond that is broken when a triglyceride is broken down?
Products - one molecule of glycerol & three molecules of fatty acid // Elimination of water // An ester bond is broken
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Why do the parts of organisms that move (e.g seeds) use lipids as an energy store rather than carbohydrates?
When oxidised, lipids provide 2x as much energy as carbohydrates // If fat is stored, the same amount of energy can be provided for less than half of the mass // THUS -it is a lighter storage product
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What is meant by metabolic water?
Water produced from the oxidation of food // When water is scare, a camel can metabolise fats
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What are two differences between a triglyceride and a phospholipid?
Triglyceride - three fatty acids, no phosphate group, non-polar // Phospholipid - two fatty acids, one phosphate group, hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
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Which end of the phospholipid molecule lies to the outside of the membrane?
Hydrophilic heads
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Which part of the membrane does a SODIUM ION pass through to enter/leave a cell
Intrinsic protein
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Which part of the membrane does a A LIPID SOLUBLE MOLECULE pass through to enter/leave a cell
Phospholipid
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What are the four bonds present in the tertiary structure of a protein?
Peptide // Hydrogen // Disulphide // Ionic
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Is insulin a GLOBULAR or FIBROUS protein?
Globular
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Is collagen a GLOBULAR or FIBROUS protein?
Fibrous
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Is keratin a GLOBULAR or FIBROUS protein?
Fibrous
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Is lysozyme (an enzyme) a GLOBULAR or FIBROUS protein?
Globular
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What is the function of MAGNESIUM?
A constituent of chlorophyll in leaves
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What is the function of IRON?
Constituent of haemoglobin in blood
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What is the function of PHOSPHATE?
Found in the plasma membrane / nucleic acids / ATP
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What is the function of CALCIUM?
Bones and teeth
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Why is water described as a polar molecule?
A polar molecule carries an UNEQUAL distribution of electrical charge // The oxygen end has a slightly negative charge // The hydrogen end of the molecule has a slightly positive charge
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Which property of water allows insects to walk on water?
High surface tension
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Which property of water allows fish to live in a frozen pond?
Water has a maximum density at 4 DEGREES so ice floats forming an insulating layer for animals below
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Which property of water allows sweating to keep us cool?
High latent heat
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Why is the property of water - it is a universal solvent important to living organisms?
Chemical reactions can take place in solution
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Why is the property of water - it is transparent important to living organisms?
Light can pass through for photosynthesis
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What are the two components of a virus?
Protein coat // Cone of nucleic acid
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What is the organelle that is involved in protein synthesis?
Ribosome
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What is the organelle that is involved in producing glycoproteins?
Golgi body
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What is the organelle that is involved in producing ATP?
Mitochondrion
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What is the organelle that is involved in producing ribosomes?
Nucleolus
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What is the organelle that possesses cristae?
Mitochondria
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What is the organelle that possesses thylakoids?
Chloroplast
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What is the organelle that possesses cisternae?
Endoplasmic reticulum
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What are three features present in a plant cell that are not found in an animal cell?
Chloroplasts // Cell wall // Large permanent vacuole
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Is the kidney a cell // tissue // organ?
Organ
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Is epithelium a cell // tissue // organ?
Tissue
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Is muscle a cell // tissue // organ?
Tissue
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Is sperm a cell // tissue // organ?
Cell
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What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic proteins found in the cell membrane?
Extrinsic proteins - occur on the surface of the bilayer or partly embedded in it //Intrinsic - extend across both layers
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Glucose is water soluble // Vitamin A is fat soluble // They both pass across the membrane to enter a cell // How do they pass across?
Vitamin A - freely passes through the lipid bilayer // Large molecules like glucose are insoluble in lipids and cannot pass through the non-polar centre of the PLBL // Intrinsic proteins assist glucose to pass in & out of the cell by facilitated diff
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What are two features of the membrane that increase the rate of diffusion?
Large surface area // Thin
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How does an increase in temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
Increase in kinetic energy of molecules results in an increase in rate
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How does facilitated diffusion differ from diffusion?
Carrier proteins are involved in facilitated diffusion
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What is one similarity and one difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport?
Both use carrier proteins // Active transport requires energy/ATP // Active transport occurs against a concentration gradient
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What are the processes that involve active transport?
Muscle contraction // Nerve impulse transmission // Protein synthesis // Uptake of minerals by roots
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What is meant by the term 'plasmolysis'?
When the cell membrane just pulls away from the cell wall
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What is the effect of an increase in temperature from 0 degrees to 40 degrees on the rate of an enzyme-controlled reaction?
A rise in temperature increases the kinetic energy of molecules // In an enzyme-catalysed reaction the enzyme and substrate molecules collide more often in a given time so that the rate of reaction increases
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If all the active sites of an enzyme are occupied, what is the effect of increasing substrate concentration on the rate of reaction?
When all the active sites are filled, a point is reached when all the active sites are working as fast as possible // The rate of reaction is at a maximum and the addition of more substrate will have no effect on the rate of reaction,which levels off
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As different conditions might vary from one organelle to another, what is one condition that might vary?
pH // Substrate concentration
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How do the two types of inhibitors differ in how they attach to an enzyme?
Competitive - the inhibitor occupies the active site of the enzyme // Non-competitive - the inhibitor attaches to a site other than the active site
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The Benedict's test is at best semi-quantitative estimating the approximate concentration of glucose in a sample. What are two advantages of using a biosensor/
Accuracy // Quantitative result // Measures low concentrations
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Which type of RNA is only found in the cytoplasm?
Ribosomal RNA // Transfer RNA
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Which type of RNA can be found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm?
mRNA
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What are two differences between DNA and RNA?
DNA - sugar is deoxyribose, double stranded, thymine base // RNA - sugar is ribose, single stranded, uracil base
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What are three events that occur during Interphase (a period of intense metabolic activity)?
Replication of DNA // Cell increases in size // Organelles produced. replacing those lost during previous division // ATP production
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What is the significance of mitosis with reference to plants?
Production of large numbers of identical offspring in a relatively short period of time (e.g bulbs, tubers & runners)
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What are three differences between meiosis and mitosis?
Mitosis - one division, chromosome number unchanged, no crossing over, daughter cells genetically identical // Meiosis- two divisions, chromosome number halved, crossing over occurs, daughter cells are genetically different
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How can meiosis give rise to genetically variable gametes?
Crossing over // Independent assortment // Mixing of two parental genotypes
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Card 2

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Are the following carbohydrates monosaccharide / disaccharide / polysaccharides /

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......

Card 3

Front

Lactose

Back

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Card 4

Front

Cellulose

Back

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Card 5

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Glucose

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