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1. Niche market

  • The resources (land, labour, capital, enterprise) that go into producing goods and services
  • Any place (e.g. physical, electronic) where buyers and sellers come together with a view to exchanging transactions
  • A smaller part of a larger market in which customers have more specific needs and wants.
  • The process of dividing a market into smaller sections (segments) segmentation which contain customers with similar needs and wants
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2. Share capital

  • The movements of cash into (“inflows”) and out of (“outflows”) a business
  • The budget which sets out estimates of the likely demand for and value of the firms sales
  • The finance invested in a business (limited company) by the shareholders – part of the equity capital of a firm
  • Investment made by specialist funds to finance the launch, early development or expansion of a private company

3. Business objective

  • The cost of a decision as measured by the benefits foregone of the next best alternative
  • A stated goal or target of a business
  • The responsiveness of demand to a change in price or incomes
  • A detailed description of a new or existing business, including the company’s strategy, aims and objectives, marketing & financial plan

4. Cash flow forecast

  • The amount of a product or service that customers are willing and able to pay at a given time
  • A projection, usually by week or month, of the likely cash inflows and outflows in a business
  • A detailed plan of income and expenses expected over a certain period of time
  • The movements of cash into (“inflows”) and out of (“outflows”) a business

5. Working capital

  • The amount of money that a business has available to conduct its day-to-day activities
  • Costs that vary directly in proportion to output
  • The income or sales that a business achieves in a period.
  • The difference between total sales and total costs


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