British History

HideShow resource information
Was it Churchill, who lost the conservatives the 1945 election?
'gestapo' speech showed he was a warmonger and looked arrogant mocking 'modest' Attlee.
1 of 74
What else prevented the conservatives from winning?
a bad campaign they only spent £3,000 on their campaign and Memories of 'the hungry 30's'
2 of 74
to refute this, why did labour win?
gained the public's trust Attlee in the wartime cabinet, captured the Zeitgeist with 'win the peace' and had popular policies .
3 of 74
What were standout labour promises?
building 300,000 houses a year, NHS 'from cradle to grave', 'full employment' (98%), free secondary education for all, nationalisation, progressive taxation. stop-go
4 of 74
Who was in the labour cabinet?
Attlee (1933-55 leader of labour)/ morrison (loyal to attlee) deputy/ dalton chancellor(nationalisation/ 47 resigns)/cripps chancellor (austerity)/ bevin (pro-america)/ bevan NHS (resigns 51)/ gaitskell chancellor
5 of 74
What were the main developments of the implementing the NHS?
convincing BMA- Bevan had to "stuff their mouths with gold'" and allowing private practices.Because only 10% supported its introduction because of free of reduced pay and didn't want to be mere 'salaried civil servants'
6 of 74
Give 6 NHS related facts.
20 million already had healthcare,187 million prescriptions, 5.25 million glasses, 8.5 million dental patients treated, NI only contributed 9% to NHS 1949, NHS costing £358 million a year
7 of 74
What was in the beveridge report, which encouraged labour policies such as the NHS?
WIDSI want, ignorance, disease, squalor and idleness
8 of 74
How did the developments of the NHS cause a split in the party?
introduction of prescription charges 1951; of the expense and they were fighting in the korean war (1950) created gaitskellites vs. bevanites
9 of 74
Give 6 Housing related facts?
700,000 houses destroyed ,1/3 needed repairs,Target 300,000 houses built a year,'prefabs',families had to stay in disused army camps,1 million houses buillt, 4 council houses for every private house built.
10 of 74
Give the education policies?
School meals and milk free,11+ programme; equal opportunity to go to university,25,000 teachers.
11 of 74
Did labour reach full employment?
yes 1945 135,000,N.east most deprived: unemployment 1939- 38% 1951- 1.5%,
12 of 74
What was clause 4 and was its impact?
Nationalisation, only 20% had of industry had been nationalised but nationalised iron and steel an already successful industry
13 of 74
What and when were public utilities nationalised?
1946- coal 1947- electricity cables/wireless 1948- transport/rail /NHS/water 1949-gas 1951- iron and steel
14 of 74
Who's Manny Shinwell ?
Ministry of power, during coldest winter of the decade 1947 when he didn't stockpile coal- coal provided 90% of power
15 of 74
Economic problems meant Attlee did what in 1949?
Devalued the £ to encourage imports, $4.03 to $2.80
16 of 74
Problems out of labour's control?
cancellation of US lend-lease left britain in finanicial dunkrik £3.75 million, war damaged industry- exports had fallen by 2/3, hard winter- 25% reductions in outputs, overseas commitments, austerity measures
17 of 74
Success in the economy?
Industrial production up by 1/3, manufacturing helps to revive economy(cars), full employments, 3% GDP grow of whole economy, working with TUs
18 of 74
How much debt was there and how much of a loan did the uk recieve from america?
£4198 debt loan of $6,000- suffered from dollar gap
19 of 74
why did labour lose the 1951 election?
Attlee exhausted MP since 1922 contrasted dwith new conservative MP’s such as maulding and heath/Labour split- resignations/they seemed untrustworhy nationalising iron and steel/early election, bad campaign- conservatives raised a 1 million fo theirs
20 of 74
Other reasons they lost the 1951 election?
Labour split-resignations,liberal votes went to conservative- fielded only 109,TU resentment slow to settle wage demands,1950 majority 5
21 of 74
Describe the characters and following PM's, after Churchill's cabinet 1951-55, during this period of consensus?
Butler-Chancellor "butskellism"/MONCKTON- ministry of labour might have well of been labour! //Churchill /Eden-suez crisis1956/Macmillian-1951 maj100/Home-old etonian
22 of 74
who were the chancellors during the '13 wasted years of tory misrule'
Thorney Croft 1957/Heathcoat-Armory 1958/Selwyn Lloyd 1960 'Pay Pause'/Maudling 1963 'sorry to leave it in such a mess old ****'
23 of 74
What did churchill do while in office?
ended rationing /steel industry denationalised/reached housing target/end of korean war 1953/New elizabethan era/detonated first atomic bomb 1952
24 of 74
What were key events from Macmillian's time in office?
1958 Notting Hill race riots,night of long knives 1962,the profumo affair 1963,EEC rejection 1963
25 of 74
Why was Macmillian popular for the first few years 1957-1959 in charge?
'never had it so good'/ weekly wages between 1950-64 rose by £10/ credit-car sales went from 1.5 million to 5.5million, "class escalators are continually moving", 1957 rent act- 6 million properties on the market (more mortages) but rents increased
26 of 74
When did Supermac lose his unflappable image?
night of long knives 1962 etc. increased inflation, unemployment 878,000 1963, stop-go economics- economy vulnerable 'to events, my dear boy, events', satire- beyond the fringe- peter cook, only 2.3% GDP france's 4.3%
27 of 74
Why were Labour in opposition from 1951-1964?
internal disputes- stance against EEC,better tory campaign- economic recovery 'life is better with the conservaties'
28 of 74
Why was wilson so appealing to voters?
young 47,smoked a pipe, liked HP, played gold, a meritocrat, who came from a grammar school, a working class lad from Huddersfield with simple tastes compared with toffy Home, seemed progressive 'swinging sixities', promised white heat
29 of 74
why did the conservaties lose the 1964 election?
seen as weak/incapable- home did sums with matchsticks! He was an aristocrat who was out of touch with grouse moor mentality EEC rejection,scandals and unemployment 878,000 1963, 1/2 of cabinet etonians, social revolution against 'the establishment'
30 of 74
Who were the key figures in wilson goverment?
George Brown DEA 1964-1967/James Callaghan Chancellor 1964-67 Devaluation of £ -resigns Home secretary 1967-70/Roy Jenkin Chancellor 1967-70/Tony Benn Ministry of technology/Andrew Crosland Education secretary/Barbara Castle Tackled the unions
31 of 74
What problems did labour begin with in 1964?
won with a majority of 5,£800 million BOP, $ had a fixed against £, Unions disillused 6th in the world, whilst EEC was progessing, 2 million working days lost to strikes
32 of 74
What had happened by 1965?
BOP £250 million,2.9 million working days lost to strikes,Post Office Tower opened,DEA- national plan forcasted 3.2% only 2.2%,circular 10/65 memo abolition of grammar schools, Race relations act, Abolished the death penalty, heath in opposition
33 of 74
1966 was important for football but also, took place in this time of morale?
increased majority of 96, may- sailors and dockers on strike because of wage freezes, wilson calls them ‘politically motivated extremists’
34 of 74
Give 1967's events? which changed the public's view of the government
iron and steel renationalised, abortion legalised, nov- De Gaulle vetoes entry in EEC, pound devaluated
35 of 74
What happened in 1968?
Jan- cuts to welfare and defense/June- open univeristy chartered/Sept- censorship of the theatre ends./
36 of 74
1969 Why was it such a disaster?
Jan- Barbara castle attempts to reform TUs/Apr- Voting age lowered to 18/oct- divorce made easier/DEA abolished
37 of 74
What were the final things to happen in 1970's britian?
May- equal pay act introduced/Wilson lost the election to heath despite opinion polls
38 of 74
What economic difficulties did labour have?Was it really that bad?
Denis Healey’s defense cuts by 1971 spending down from 6% to 4%,pound devalued by 14% ‘ pound in your pocket not devalued’ but public spending up 38%, £550 surplus,
39 of 74
Why did the unions beat Wilson? Mention the union troubles.
Wilson's paranoia-1966 sailors and dockers strike,unions feel just; are angered by 'in place of strife' 100,000 strike against it and opposition within party-callaghan,flying pickets, 1969 6.8 million days lost to strikes
40 of 74
The 'permissive society' meant, what? linked to Roy Jenkins
race relations/abortion act/sexual offences act/ common wealth immigration act/threatre act/abolition of death penalty/ divorce reform/ open university BUT VIETNAM no condemnation- grovernor square 1968 riot
41 of 74
Why did labour lose the 1970 election?
wilson's 'short-term gimmitry',trade figures,union opposition, devaluation by 14%. 150,000 labours member left between 1964-70, some labour votes attrached to powell "rivers of blood speech", out of touch 6.8 million strike 1969
42 of 74
Why he shouldn't have lost the 1970 election?
£550 surplus, opinion polls, lowest income went up 104%, social reforms liked by the majority e.g. Divorce Reform Act 1968,economy improved campared to the last government
43 of 74
Other Success facts?
pensions up 20%, 16 new schools built a week, spending on hospital 100% up, 2 million houses built more than conservative record
44 of 74
Why did Heath win?
"selsdon man"- tough image: tough on law and order and free market "quite revolution"
45 of 74
How is Heath committed to the free market?
He wants less government interferences, personal ownership
46 of 74
Describe Heath's career before being PM?
sailor ted- won with his yacht 'morning cloud'- seemed capable, chief negoitator from macmillian's EEC entry,served in the military
47 of 74
What is Heath remember for?
"tommorrow will be better than today", 1971 decimalisation, 1973 EEC entry paid in more than we recieved,ecapism- music transition to glam rock, 1972 miners strike 23 million working days lost to strikes, bloody sunday 13 died, 3 day week
48 of 74
How did the unions defeat Heath?
industrial relations act lead to NUM strike of 280,000 wanting a 45% pay rise, they recieved 21% with wild cat strikes and flying pickets- gormley nearly sort out deal of washing times, 1973 3 day week;1974 miners strike "who governs?"
49 of 74
How did he U-turn?
inflation 15%; price and incomes policy,'lame duck' companies bailed out Rolls-Royce nationalised and upper clyde shipbuilders given £34million
50 of 74
What other policies did he implement?
£550,000 tax cuts "barber boom", reduced government spending less council house subsidies, withdrawal of free school milk local government act-greater manchester, housing finance act- right to buy council houses, mortages easier to get
51 of 74
Why was the 3 day week so damaging?
'britain back in the dark ages' the government seemed powerless, it was caused by the oil-crisis where britian supported israel this meant the opposing OPEC country put barrels up from $2 to £35 and the miners strike cut coal supplies
52 of 74
Why was the 1973 entry a success but still disappointing
access to european markets,development grants, status but Uk was now unable to buy cheap goods from the commonwealth adding £1000 Cap to annual food bills,VAT increased to 17.5%, De gaulle did retire, paid in more than received
53 of 74
Why did Wilson win the 1974 election?
1 million unemployed 1972,satire heath-co failing company to mock strikes,1st miners strike since 1926 general strike,more working days lost in heath's 20 months than in wilson's 6 years,couldn't make a coalition
54 of 74
Why did wilson only stay in until 1976?
retired early from old age and stress, said he would retire at 60,he had the same old solutions
55 of 74
1975 – one of his major moves was?
Europe referendum attempt to placate the unions and left who regarded it as a capitalist club, “The Durham miners don’t like it” – majority voted “yes”
56 of 74
What did healey have to do to solve Britain's economic problems?
IMF crisis, 1976 – Healey had to negotiate £3 million loan – required huge spending cuts – outraged left, ALSO, there was inflation from oil crisis led to pound dropping below $2
57 of 74
The unions Again ! deeper in to the 70's
tried to keep pay rise at 5% “British disease” 16800 strikes between 1974 and 1979 – 1977 firemen’s strike caused state of emergency – Ford started 1979 giving its workers 15% pay rise
58 of 74
What was the winter of discontent 1979?
January 22nd saw 1.5 million workers strike – school meals service disrupted, grave diggers left dead bodies unburied and refuse uncollected – Callaghan denied a crisis
59 of 74
What were the problems staying power?
Small majority never more than 3,relied on 1977 Lib-Lab pact, 1979 no majority lost vote of no confidence;went into the election with low morale,Election timing – failed to call election in autumn 1978 when support was picking up
60 of 74
Give some successes of Callaghan's government?
social reforms health and safety act 1974, race discrimination, inflation reduced from 30% to 7%,1978 britian on its way to being self-sufficient in gas and oil (North Sea Oil), stayed in with low maj, BOP better than 74
61 of 74
Thatcher’s 1979 election victory why?
Winter of discontent – government had lost control,People were willing to take any alternative,Not that tories won the election- it was that Labour lost it, election timing
62 of 74
How did Thatcher want to break from the consensus?
abandoned Keynesianism-monetarism instead,she changed the focus from unemployment to inflation,taking £900 million out of spending,inflation dropped from 19% to 5% by 1983 – but unemployment exceeded 2 million,
63 of 74
Thatcher losing popularity?
Rugged individualism; social unrest 1981 riots Brixton, toxteth,frustration at unemployment saw this as laziness – Tebbit spoke of his father who “got on his bike and looked for work...until he found it”
64 of 74
What saved Thatcher?
Falklands war, she played on British patriotism and her popularity soared – she won the 1983 election with a majority of 144
65 of 74
What were her policies?
Deregulation removal of restrictions 'right to buy',Privatisation increased “popular capitalism”shareholders rose from 3 to 9 million-it raised £47 billion,Tax lowered standard income tax rate from 33% to 30% highest rate from 83%- 60%
66 of 74
What was her relation with the Europe?
against her principles – disparity in budget payments rewarded inefficiency and penalised productivity - spoke for hours on end to EEC leaders demanding “our money back”
67 of 74
The Miners’ strikes, 1984-1985 why did it fail?
personality clashes Scargill vs Ian McGregor,stockpiled coal,trained police,Scargill refused to hold a ballot,Employment Acts of 1980 and 1982 forbade mass picketing and “closed shop”,biased media reporting and 65% supported gvt, miners broke strikes
68 of 74
Why did she want to close the mines?
uncompromise leader demanded 20 unprofitable mine closures,unions argued mines could have a profitable future,social as well as economic.WANTED TO DESTORY UNIONS
69 of 74
What U-turns did she make?
£990 million given to British Leyland closure would have caused Midlands redundancies where there were a large number of marginal seats,• Europe – in 1986 Thatcher accepted the Single European Act – led to greater centralisation
70 of 74
What were Labour like during the thatcher's year in office?
Michael Foot out of touch with the electorate very left-wing with unrealistic and unpopular policies the manifesto “the longest suicide note in history”gang of four” Roy Jenkins broke from Labour SDP split vote,Kinnock’s u-turns on reforms
71 of 74
How much was the labour majority in 1945?
A majority of 146.
72 of 74
What was the rainy day fund?
national insurance
73 of 74
What economic policy did labour have?
74 of 74

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What else prevented the conservatives from winning?


a bad campaign they only spent £3,000 on their campaign and Memories of 'the hungry 30's'

Card 3


to refute this, why did labour win?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What were standout labour promises?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who was in the labour cabinet?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Modern Britain - 19th century onwards resources »