British Empire 1947-1967

  • Created by: cliashton
  • Created on: 04-06-18 15:08
Sterling crisis 1947
£900 million loan from USA - gotta make £ freely convertible to $ at fixed rate - B spent $ reserves w/in 6 weeks - looked weak and dual mandate approach emerges
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Dual Mandate Approach
B realises running empire is too expensive thanks to her newfound weakness - decides to abandon non-profitable countries but really develop profitable ones
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Suez Crisis
31st Oct 1956 - B and F forces defend vs 'surprise' Israeli attack but didnt tell USA (real angry). B appears militarily weak again (reliant on NATO and USA) and provides inspiration for nationalist mvmts - B can be pushed out!
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Commonwealth of Nations
created 1931 - keep empire together with bits branching off (dominions) - changed rules 1949 when India = federation - informal influence (cultural ties etc)
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Post-War Reconstruction
Empire helped provide raw mats needed for quick reconstruction but Marshall Plan 1947 and speedy Eu development meant that B started to look twd Eu for manufactured goods once imminent reconstruction happened - E=less important
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European Economic Community
Founded 1957 - B really wanted to join bc manufactured goods were what the people wanted post-war but wanted special deal with commonwealth, therefore couldn't get entry until 1973
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Post-War Public Opinion
Labour gvmt election 1945 means ppl dont want 'party of empire' and want domestic reform - stability over empire - really turning away from this imperialist sentiment
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Migration
1946-1957 1million B ppl emigrate to commonwealth countries // Nationality Act 1948 grants c/ship to any person from empire or c/wealth - residual ties! - race riots and teddy boy gangs - notting hill etc :(
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Residual Ties (Cultural)
Cultural - that was the week that was (satirises empire), other TV comedies celebrated it and were racist// Lawrence of Arabia 1962 critiqued empire//Last night of the proms still exists// notting hill carnival celebrates diversity
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Residual Ties (Political & Economic)
A lot of ex-colonies had similar governmental systems to Britain - judicial/parliaments etc also queen as head of state//kept gurkha regiment & commonwealth conferences took place
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Sir Charles Arden-Clarke
gvnr gold coast 49-57//helps release Nkrumah from prison 51 and incorporate into politics//stop ashanti-nkrumah divisions, delayed independence 1956 but did get independence as ghana 1957 - retired instead of being gov-gen
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Andrew Cohen
gvnr uganda 52-57//cohen report 1947 did little but set about gradual reform// africans into gvmt// helped create a stable and viable ugandan gvmt by 1962
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John MacPherson
gvnr nigeria 48-55//macpherson consitution 1951 helped manage transition to independence by stimulating political parties, independent nigeria by 1960
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Mau Mau Uprising
1952-1960 - mau mau (branch of kikuyu in kenya) started brutal violence w/kenyans, and guerrilla warfare w/b (evelyn baring jr state of emergency). both repressive, B 'rehabilitation camps', 12000 ppl killed 52-6
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Colonial Development Acts
1940, 1945 and 1948 (col dvpt corporation), poured £ into colonies to ensure that they were developed and profitable - kept them tied to B financially (informal empire idea)
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Malaya
Malayan Insurgency 1948 - Onn bin Ja'afar helped negotiate and merge UMNO with MCA to create viable and independent Malaya 1957
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Rhodesia
Ian Smith creates Rhodesian Front 62 and declares independence 1965, leaving c/wealth - maintains apartheid until 1979
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Nigeria
Macpherson Constitution 51- extends right to vote, helping growth of pol. parties and slowly transition towards independence politically (B concessions) mean independent Oct 1960
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Gold Coast
CCP founded by Nkrumah 1949, pressurised B admin to make concessions - leg council enlarged. Nkrumah prison (1950-1), becomes PM 1952 thx to CCP winning seats in Leg Assembly - 1957 Ghana!
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CAF
Central African Federation (NR, SR & Nyasaland) born 1953 to counter apartheid, dissolved 1963 following calls for black majority rule
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Burma
Gone 1948 because of dual mandate and threats posed by Aung San and AFPFL - civil war erupted amoungst factions of AFPFL and Burma wouldn't join commonwealth
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International Relations
USA = pwrfl now and B = dependent on the USA for $ and protection - USA now dictates as 'worlds policeman' and is anti-imp - B didnt tell USA about suez - international relations failure
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Wind of Change
3rd Feb 1960 - speech in South Africa by Harold Macmillan (nicknamed super mac) gave hope to black nationalists and emphasised 'managed decolonisation' - significant because he acknowledged the issues
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Jomo Kenyatta
president of KAU 1947, imprisoned for Mau Mau 53-61, by 1963 negotiated independence with B
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

B realises running empire is too expensive thanks to her newfound weakness - decides to abandon non-profitable countries but really develop profitable ones

Back

Dual Mandate Approach

Card 3

Front

31st Oct 1956 - B and F forces defend vs 'surprise' Israeli attack but didnt tell USA (real angry). B appears militarily weak again (reliant on NATO and USA) and provides inspiration for nationalist mvmts - B can be pushed out!

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

created 1931 - keep empire together with bits branching off (dominions) - changed rules 1949 when India = federation - informal influence (cultural ties etc)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Empire helped provide raw mats needed for quick reconstruction but Marshall Plan 1947 and speedy Eu development meant that B started to look twd Eu for manufactured goods once imminent reconstruction happened - E=less important

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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